Banking regulation

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  • In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Background, regulatory structure, deregulation act of 1980, Garn-St Germain act, regulation of deposit insurance, regulation of capital, regulation of operations, regulation of interstate expansion, how regulators monitor banks, the “too-big-to-fail” issue, global bank regulations.

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  • The British East India Company established "The Hindustan Bank" in Kolkata and Mumbai in 1770 and later in 1785 established other banks. In early nineteenth century three Presidency Banks, i.e., Bank of Bengal, Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras were established. The first important event in the history of banking in India took place in 1919 when the Presidency Banks were amalgamated and Imperial Bank of India was set up.

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  • In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Multiple expansion of credit; money multiplier; major banks of world, size distribution; importance of banks in less developed countries; bank regulation, Basel accord; impact of information technology on banking.

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  • We have written this book primarily to assist investment bankers, stakeholders such as regulators and politicians, and those interested in starting an investment banking career in understanding how ethics can be applied in investment banking. Since 2007, as the financial crisis has played out, there has been much criticism of investment banking and calls for more ethical behaviour by investment banks and investment bankers.

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  • The European microfinance market is characterized by varying legal and regulatory frameworks, different economic realities, differing political philosophies towards socio-economic activity, and different financial sector structures (and history). 5 Banks are subject to comprehensive regulation, even though local differences exist given that EU directives may not have been fully transposed into national law. In some European countries, only regulated banks may engage in micro- lending. Non-banks are typically not subject to banking regulation.

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  • The structure of the paper is as follows. Section 2 discusses the literature on both measuring competition and the bank interest rate pass-through. Section 3 describes the Boone indicator of competition and Section 4 the employed interest rate pass-through model of the error-correction type and the applied panel unit root and cointegration tests. Section 5 presents the various data sets used. The results on the various tests and estimates of the spread model and the error correction model equations are shown in Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarises and concludes....

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  • Within the Latin American context, worker remittances are becoming increasingly relevant to the economies of many countries. In 2003, Lat in America received more than $38 billion in remittances from Canada, Europe, Japan, Latin America itself and the United States. The table 4 shows the total remittances sent to selected countries in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2003. The table also shows remittances as a percentage of GDP and exports.

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  • The impact of collateral on credit risk is a subject that has raised a good deal of debate. From a theoretical perspective, there are two alternative interpretations that lead to different empirical predictions. On the one hand, the collateral pledged by borrowers may help attenuate the problem of adverse selection faced by the bank when lending [Stiglitz and Weiss (1981), Bester (1985), Chan and Kanatas (1985), Besanko and Thakor (1987a, b) and Chan and Thakor (1987)].

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  • Are there countries in which the gender-based division of labor or disparities in resources or power between males and females are so small as to have minimal implications for human well-being, economic growth, and poverty reduction? We examine this issue here. To preview our conclusion: although some countries have more numerous or extreme gender disparities or forms of female (or male) disadvantage than others, no country is entirely free of the gender patterns that we know to be harmful for development and the improved well-being of the population.

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  • Work is underway to review and update the Bank’s policy state- ments on investment and adjustment lending; these reviews will provide the framework for considering appropriate integration of the gender dimension into these policy statements. Because analytical work and JSAs are central to this strategy, the Bank’s Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network will play an important role in implementation.

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  • The role of the board of directors therefore becomes crucial in balancing the interests of shareholders and other stakeholders (eg., creditors and depositors). Consequently, bank regulators place additional responsibilities on bank boards that often result in detailed regulations regarding their decision-making practices and strategic aims. These additional regulatory responsibilities for management have led some experts to observe that banking regulation is a substitute for corporate governance.

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  • Until the 1990s, the main objective of the Italian banking regulation was to foster local de- velopment and to ensure financial stability. In general, mergers between public banks were not allowed; and for savings banks, there were strict authorization procedures for such mergers. This system was quite successful in supporting and stimulating the growth of the industrial sector, which was (and to a considerable extent still is) characterized by a large number of small and medium enterprises. But at the beginning of the 1990s, the system started to show its weaknesses.

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  • Stress tests calibrated on the Irish crisis experience show that the banks are largely able to withstand sizable shocks to their exposure to residential mortgages. However, combining residential mortgage shocks with corporate losses expected at the peak of the global financial crisis would bring down the banks’ average total capital ratio below the regulatory minimum.

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  • The paper reviews a wide range of theoretical, historical and empirical literatures on banking models and detailed case analyses of failing and non-failing banks. A framework for understanding the role and application of knowledge in banking is developed which suggests how banks, despite their pro-cyclical business strategies, are able to institutionalise learning and actively create new knowledge through time to improve bank organisation, intermediation and risk management. Findings.

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  • Chapter 14 - Regulating the financial system. The purpose of this chapter is: To look at the sources and consequences of financial fragility focusing on the banking sector, to look at the institutional safeguards the government has built into the system in an attempt to avert financial crises, to study the regulatory and supervisory environment of the banking industry, to examine emerging approaches to regulation that focus on the safety of the financial system rather than on individual institutions.

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  • Adverse selection arises from different borrowers having different probabilities of repayment. Therefore, to maximise expected return, the bank would like to only lend to borrowers with a high probability of repayment. In order to determine who the good borrowers are, the bank can use the interest rate as a screening device. Unfortunately those who are willing to pay high interest rates may be bad borrowers because they perceive their probability of repayment to be low.

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  • Chapter 7 - International banking and the basel accords. The objectives of this chapter are: To find out why banks are assigned special importance and why banking is more regulated than other business, to consider the types of risk a bank is exposed to, to consider the pros and cons of banking regulation…

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  • Chapter 7 - International banking and the basel accords. The objectives of this chapter are: To find out why banks are assigned special importance and why banking is more regulated than other business, to consider the types of risk a bank is exposed to, to consider the pros and cons of banking regulation…

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  • Chapter 15 - The regulation of markets and institutions. In this chapter you will learn to describe the different methods of regulating primary, secondary, and intermediated financial markets; understand the United States dual banking system and the array of regulators who oversee it; explain universal banking and its possible benefits and risks.

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  • Tài liệu môn Thị trường tài chính và các định chế tài chính- Chapters " Bank Regulations" dành cho các bạn sinh viên, học viên đang theo học ngành kinh tế, chuyên ngành tài chính: tài chính doanh nghiệp, taì chính ngân hàng, tài chính tiền tệ,...

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