Xem 1-20 trên 168 kết quả Based immune
  • Immune system is composed of innate and adaptive responses and plays critical roles in cancer development and destruction. A century ago, Paul Ehrlich postulated that cancer would be quite common in long-lived organisms if not for the protective effects of immunity. About 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas proposed the concept of cancer immunosurveillance based on the experimental evidence of immune recognition of tumor antigens expressed on tumor cells (Dunn et al. 2004 ) . In 1971, the US Congress created a National Cancer Act – a War on Cancer.

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  • The analysis illustrates numerous frameworks for the development of a destination marketing strategy and a comprehensive marketing mix. The paper also illustrates the relationship between marketing and planning of destinations and their conflicting and symbiotic relationship. This paper is based on research and consultancy on destination marketing around the world, where several frameworks have been tested and implemented. It discusses a wide spectrum of destination marketing tools and provides plentiful references for researchers who would like to study in-depth each technique.

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  • Risk Assessment Vaccines are considered safe when the risk of use is judged to be acceptable in relation to the benefits. For vaccines given to healthy individuals for diseases that are no longer common, acceptable risks are set at very low levels—indeed, far lower than for most medical products. However, "safety" does not and cannot ever mean "zero risk." The determination of safety is thus based on a scientific assessment of the data and a considered judgment of all the issues involved, including benefits and risks.

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  • The calculation of indirect and induced (multiplier) impacts is made on the basis of input-output (I-O) accounting tables. These matrices show the pattern of purchases and sales between industries in the economy. Base tables are constructed at a national level, and tables for smaller regions are derived by regionalizing the core BEA tables to reflect inter-regional purchasing patterns.

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  • The health impacts of a range of air pollutants are evaluated in this paper. However, to avoid double counting, it follows Kunzli et al. (1999) in using PM10 (particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less) as the single indicator (the index pollutant) of the health impacts of common ambient air pollutants, and including non-overlapping health endpoints2 only when calculating the total health impact of air emissions.

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  • It is too incongruous to cover the complete topics, based on infectious disease, but I have performed my level best workings to include a big portion of the curriculum. Analyses, information, gathered in this book, have been integrated from a variety of national and international journals, to institute this text. My wholehearted effort will be successful, if societal advantage may be achieved to the civilization.

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  • The use of a reference standard consisting of colposcopy and directed biopsy served two purposes. The treatment decision was supposed to be based on colposcopic impression (with lab results coming later to identify any cancers that might have been missed) to reduce the number of visits and the loss to follow-up care. However, district hospital staff usually preferred to wait for the biopsy result to come back before offering treatment. Second, the use of colposcopy allowed comparison to conventional cytology and the evaluation of the proposed triage methods: VIA, VILI, and VIAM.

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  • When starting a cervical cancer prevention and control programme, cytology-based screening is not advisable, as sensitivity of this methodology is low and health systems requirements to ensure good quality and adequate coverage are high. If appropriate, a combination of different screening modalities followed by treatment may be used depending on the geographical area, infrastructure and human resource capacity in the country.

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  • Events following entry of bacilli: Phagocytosis of M.tuberculosis by alveolar macrophages is the firstevent in the host-pathogen relationship that decidesoutcome of infection. Within 2 to 6 wk of infection,cell-mediated immunity (CMI) develops, and thereis an influx of lymphocytes and activatedmacrophages into the lesion resulting in granulomaformation. The exponential growth of the bacilli ischecked and dead macrophages form a caseum. Thebacilli are contained in the caseous centers of thegranuloma.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • When the actual holdings of the fund to be evaluated are available, it is possible to apply so-called weight-based performance measures. These measures essentially examine the covariance of the manager’s actual holdings, measured as proportions or portfolio weights, with the subsequent returns of the assets. The idea is that a manager who increases the fund’s exposure to a security or asset class before it performs well, or who anticipates and avoids losers, has investment ability.

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  • I focus here on a description of the first, 1990 montage, which originates the format, utilizing many of the clips from Precious Images and establishing conventions for subsequent montages.

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  • For decades we have been learning about the interplay between tumors and the immune system. Our knowledge seemed somewhat incomplete and indirect, like listening to the ocean waves through a shell. Only recently, cancer immunotherapy has started to become a reality, with Provenge (Dendreon Corporation, WA), an autologous antigen-presenting cell preparation, earning the approval of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer in 2010.

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  • Therefore, ex vivo expansion of BMSCs is required to obtain a sufficient number of transplantable cells. Since BMSCs require several kinds of supportive factors for their growth, it is standard practice to use fetal bovine serum (FBS), while autologous human serum (HS) and pooled allogeneic HS have also been used. It has been suggested that FBS may not be favorable for clinical applications due to the possible risk of contamination (prions, viruses, zoonosis) or immunological reactions against xenogeneic serum antigens (Agata et al., 2009).

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  • Having studied the effect of monetary policy and capital ows shocks on housing activity, our second contribution is to explore how nancial innovation affects the transmission of the two shocks. Using an index of mortgage market development constructed in IMF (2008), 1 we split our sample in two groups of countries (with high and low mortgage market development) and estimate our panel VAR model across the two subsamples. We also split the sample using the ratio of mortgage debt to GDP in 2004.

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  • In 2005, the baseline country studies pointed to a lack of connection between advocacy for reduction of maternal mortality in national-level planning and the necessary linkage to effective programmatic responses through resource allocation, capacity- building and human-resource development. The 2011 case-studies suggest that this problem persists: despite a closing of the gap between policy and programmes, the limited progress with improving health outcomes has shown the importance of strengthening health systems – particularly for maternal and newborn health.

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  • Ian and Jane also became involved in processing and marketing their own products about five years ago. They found that there is a lot to learn about running a paddock- to-plate supply chain, including hiring staff and building strategic partnerships. Employment problems, particularly recruiting and training the right people, proved to be a significant issue for the business.

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  • Listening to the radio is fairly common among elders although only half do so daily or almost daily and just over one fourth do not listen to the radio at all. Elders who are men, live in Phnom Penh, or are younger are more likely to listen to the radio and to listen to frequently than elders who are women, live in the provinces, or are older. TV watching is somewhat less common than listening to the radio. Two fifths of Cambodian elders indicate they did not watch TV during the last month while only modestly more...

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  • Most of my previous books have been released under a slightly different Creative Com- mons license, one that allowed for derivative works (that is, new creative works based on this one). Keen observers will have already noticed that this book is licensed “NoDerivs” -- that is, you can't make remixes without permission. A word of explanation for this shift is in order. When I first started publishing under Creative Commons licenses, I had to carefully explain this to my editor and publisher at Tor Books.

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  • The third part of the book is dedicated to analysis of role of DNA methylation in cancer. According to the American Cancer Association, nearly 13% of all deaths worldwide are cancer related. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns is likely to play a causative role in cancer initiation and development. The first chapter is dedicated to investigation of DNA methylation role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with tyrosinemia.

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