Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: A controlled trial of value-based insurance design – The MHealthy: Focus on Diabetes (FOD) trial
For States that do not seek to operate a State-based Exchange or a Partnership with the Federally-
facilitated Exchange, HHS will establish and operate a Federally-facilitated Exchange. In such
instances, a State may elect to run reinsurance and may elect to coordinate with CMCS on decisions
and protocols for either an eligibility assessment or eligibility determination model in the Federally-
Distance-based pricing can help achieve equity objectives. Since annual vehicle mileage
tends to increase with income, fixed-price insurance causes lower-income motorists to
subsidize the insurance costs of higher-income motorists within their rate class.
Distance-based insurance pricing provides overall savings to lower-income motorists,
and would allow some low-income households to own a vehicle for basic mobility that
they cannot currently afford.
Distance-based pricing lets motorists save money by reducing mileage, an option that is
The Affordable Care Act provides States with significant flexibility in the design and operation of their
Exchange to best meet the unique needs of their citizens and their marketplace. States can choose to
operate as a State-based Exchange, or the Secretary of the Department of Health & Human Services
(HHS) will establish and operate a Federally-facilitated Exchange in any State that does not elect to
operate a State-based Exchange.
The data included below must be interpreted with caution, indeed those providing the data
themselves advise caution in using it. The European data comes from the European Business
Angel Network (EBAN), and the US data comes from the Angel Capital Association or the Centre
for Venture Research, University of New Hampshire. EBAN note that their numbers only include
activity that takes place within Business Angel networks, and as such by no means represent the
full extent of Business Angel activity existing in Europe.
This study investigates the feasibility, benefits and costs of implementing distance-based
motor vehicle insurance. It is based on a literature review, analysis of insurance claim
data, comparisons of different distance-based pricing options, and evaluation of
concerns that have been raised about distance-based pricing.
Vehicle insurance is a significant portion of total vehicle costs. A typical motorist spends
almost as much on insurance as on fuel. Insurance is generally considered a fixed cost
with respect to vehicle use.
Distance-based insurance reflects the principle that prices should be based on costs. It
gives consumers a new way to save money by returning to individual motorists the
insurance cost savings that result when they drive less. Motorists who continue their
current mileage would be no worse off on average then they are now (excepting any
additional transaction costs), while those who reduce their mileage save money.
Distance-based pricing can help achieve several public policy goals including actuarial
accuracy, equity, affordability, road safety, consumer savings and choice.
This report also in-
cludes preliminary observations regarding SARs filed from May 2007 through Oc-
tober 2007. Consistent with FinCEN’s mission to provide beneficial information to
law enforcement, regulators and regulated industries, this report will present indicia
of possible illicit activity that some insurance companies have identified, and hence
raise awareness of possible risks and vulnerabilities.
This report offers insight into the quality of the reporting.
In an attempt to glean potential trends, this study divides the subjects of the 641
filings into categories based in part on their occupation and in part on their relation-
ship to the insurance or investment product involved in the transaction. The data is
derived from several sources on the SAR-SF: the narrative section (Part VI), Field 7
(“Occupation or Type of Business”), and Field 19 (“Is this individual/business associated/
affiliated with the reporting financial institution?”).
The study characterizes the subjects based on their relationship to the insurance
As one of the key pillars of the financial services sector the insurance sector is a central
element of the trade and development matrix. As both an infrastructural and commercial
service, a well-functioning insurance sector plays a crucial role in economic development
not just at a macro economic level but also in terms of the activities of individuals and
The world insurance market is dominated by industrialized countries which in 2004
generated about 88 per cent of world life insurance premiums and accounted for 90 per
cent of the world non-life market.
The Affordable Care Act establishes Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) to provide
individuals and small business employees with access to health insurance coverage beginning January
An Exchange is an entity that both facilitates the purchase of Qualified Health Plans (QHP)
by qualified individuals and provides for the establishment of a Small Business Health Options Program
(SHOP), consistent with Affordable Care Act 1311(b) and 45 CFR 155.20.
Once you receive the community’ s letter stating that
the cost to repair flood damage to your building is 50
percent or more of its market value, you may file an
ICC claim. You should contact your flood adjuster or
your flood insurer’ s claims representative to file the
ICC claim. You have 4 years from the date of the
community’ s letter declaring the building to be
substantially damaged to complete your chosen
mitigation activity under the terms of the Standard
Flood Insurance Policy .
Health insurers play a unique role as both sellers
of insurance and buyers of health care services.
These companies use their power as buyers
against the smaller medical providers while
cooperating with larger providers to increase
profits for both.22,23 With only a handful of
large insurers, physician practices often have no
choice but to accept the prices offered without
bargaining effectively. Larger providers, such
as academic medical centers, can use their size
and stature to negotiate rates.
A third criterion for effective research on skills transfer is study over time. To be
certain that students are transferring skills from their first language rather than using
skills learned in their second language, researchers must study subjects who have
received reading instruction in their first language prior to receiving it in their second
language, and who have received sufficient first-language instruction to have developed a
base of first-language skills that can be transferred.
Third, this data does not directly compare with other information collected on the
SAR form with reference to the specific instruments involved in the reported trans-
actions, as discussed infra. For example, analysis identified 225 filings that involved
annuities, however, Table 1 shows 197 filings that named an annuity owner or ap-
plicant as a subject in the narrative, based on a relationship to an annuity.
Revenue insurance accounts for more than half of all crop insurance policies (Figure 2). It began
in 1997 as a buy-up option on a pilot basis for major crops. By 2003, acreage under revenue-
based insurance exceeded acreage covered by APH policies. Revenue insurance combines the
production guarantee component of crop insurance with a price guarantee to create a target
Under revenue insurance programs, participating producers are assigned a target level of revenue
based on market prices for the commodity and the producer’s yield history.
Despite the large social benefits from PAYD, there are currently several barriers to its
widespread adoption, including the cost to monitor miles traveled and some state insur-
ance regulations. In order to facilitate the spread of PAYD, we propose a three-part strat-
egy. First, states should pass legislation permitting mileage-based insurance premiums.
Second, the federal government should increase the funding available to PAYD pilot pro-
grams by $15 million over five years.
In this paper we argue that religion and welfare state spending are substitute mecha-
nisms that insure individuals against adverse life events. As a result, individuals who
are religious will prefer lower levels of social insurance provision than will individuals
who are secular, and countries that are more religious on average will have lower levels
of welfare state spending.
The gross production / consumption loss: The costs of additional mortality cases are
assessed according to the loss in income / production or the loss of consumption. This
valuation concept - sometimes refered as discounted future earnings - is based on the loss
resulting from a premature death for the economy as a whole. It is a concept based on the
general society, without regarding the individual difference in valuing lower or higher
risks of mortality or fatal accidents.