This book focuses on the basic electrochemical applications of DNA in various areas, from basic principles to the most recent discoveries. The book comprises theoretical and experimental analysis of various properties of nucleic acids, research methods, and some promising applications.
In recent years, the awareness of water needs and processing
requirement has become an increasingly important topic.
As the earth's population increases the demand for "clean"
water has become an even larger factor in residential as
well as industrial and commercial costs. There are now
almost no natural water sources that do not require some
This book introduces some basic and advanced studies on ionic liquids in the
electrochemical fi eld. Although ionic liquids are known by only a few scientists
and engineers, their applications ’ potential in future technologies is unlimited.
There are already many reports of basic and applied studies of ionic liquids
as reaction solvents, but the reaction solvent is not the only brilliant future of
the ionic liquids. Electrochemistry has become a big fi eld covering several key
ideas such as energy, environment, nanotechnology, and analysis.
In this Eighth Edition we have retained the objectives and approaches for teaching
materials science and engineering that were presented in previous editions. The
first, and primary, objective is to present the basic fundamentals on a level appropriate
for university/college students who have completed their freshmen calculus,
chemistry, and physics courses.
Substantial changes from the first English edition of this book (1993, Plenum Press,
New York) have been introduced in this second edition. The content was rearranged
such that all basic knowledge is contained in the first part of the book. This part
was rewritten and to some extent simplified and can be used as a textbook for
undergraduate students in electrochemistry and related branches. More advanced
topics that will be of interest for people at a postgraduate level can be found in the
The capital-maintenance definition of income is briefly summarized by
From the joint work of the whole mass of productive factors there comes an
(annual) in-flowing stream of output. This is gross real income. When what is
required to maintain capital intact is subtracted from this there is left net real
This definition makes absolutely no reference to financial liabilities.
One could argue that, to be consistent with the accounting treatment of
physical assets under this concept, the firm's short position on bonds
should be handled with a LIFO-type procedure.
For a millennium, universities have been considered the main societal hub for knowledge and learning.1 And for a millennium, the basic structures of how universities produce and disseminate knowledge and evaluate students have survived intact through the sweeping societal changes created by technology—the moveable-type printing press, the Industrial Revolution, the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, and computers.
In order to monitor the performance of defaulted debt securities, a measure called the
Altman-NYU Salomon Center Index of Defaulted Debt Securities (A-NYU Index) was
The Index is comprised of the publicly traded bonds of companies which have
defaulted on their interest and/or principal payments.
Risk mapping Draw a basic map of the workplace, marking on it the
machines, workstations and the substances or processes used. Record on
the risk map any health problems reported by workers doing particular jobs.
Repeat the exercise periodically and see if any problems become apparent.
If cancer causing substances or processes are being used, investigate
alternatives and, if this is not possible, safer work methods.
Body mapping Draw two body outlines on a large piece of paper, one
representing the front of a person, one the back.
The development of the strategy has been based on a number of guiding principles. Primarily
the strategy recognises the basic human right to adequate food and health and freedom from
malnutrition and disease. It respects the humanitarian principle of ‘do no harm’ such that its’
implementation should not exacerbate or worsen the situation.
A key guiding principle is recognition of the specific context and challenges of implementation
in Somaliland, Puntland and South Central Somalia.
Composites are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which
remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Basically, they can be
categorized into two major types, i.e., structural composites with outstanding
mechanical properties and functional composites with various outstanding physical,
chemical or electrochemical properties. They have been widely used in a wide variety
of products, e.g.
Notebook computers are complex devices. Figure 1 depicts the basic elements that comprise a notebook computer and shows how they ﬁt together. It includes the operating environment and user, as well as the computer, battery pack, and the fundamental electrochemical cell that drives its operation. Since notebooks are portable, it is essential to have a lightweight, sealed battery to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the computer case. Two types of batteries are found in a notebook computer. One is a rechargeable battery pack that provides the energy for its operation.
In the last two decades, many books have been published on
ion implantation and ion-beam processing. Why this one now?
After all, the advantages of using an energetic ion beam to
modify surfaces with a view to enhancing their tribological,
electrochemical, optical and magnetic properties have been
known for some time.
The aim of this volume is to review the basics of previous
work on ion-beam modification of materials and to include
enough new material on novel applications to bring newcomers
“up to speed” in this exciting area....