This chapter aims at providing an overview of products and systems using
batteries. Here, the term product indicates any device – small or large, portable
or not – powered by a battery. The term system indicates a large installation,
such as an energy storage plant to back up an electricity grid, or an extended
Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established
to work together in the development of lighter lead–acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials
and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to
substitute the heavy lead alloy grids mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge
and discharge reactions.
In the past several years, there have been many developments in the materials for lead–acid batteries. Silver in grid alloys for high temperature climates in SLI batteries has increased the silver content of the recycled lead stream. Concern about silver and other contaminants in lead for the active material for VRLA batteries led to the initiation of a study by ALABC at CSIRO. The study evaluated the effects of many different impurities on the hydrogen and oxygen evolution currents in ﬂoat service for ﬂooded and VRLA batteries at different temperatures and potentials. ...
Pb–Ca foil laminated on rolled sheet for positive grid of lead-acid battery is proposed to prevent premature capacity loss (PCL) during charge–discharge cycling. Batteries with Pb–Ca foil laminated on positive grid had longer life during charge–discharge cycle than conventional battery, which failed early by PCL. PCL is a phenomenon due to the increase of the interfacial resistance between the positive grid and the positive active mass (PAM) during discharging by PbSO4 formation in the corrosion layer....
Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems are power systems energised by photovoltaic panels which are connected to the utility grid. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems comprise of Photovoltaic panels, MPPT, solar inverters, power conditioning units and grid connection equipments. Unlike Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems these systems do not have batteries. When conditions are right, the grid-connected PV system supplies the excess power, beyond consumption by the connected load, to the utility grid....
Due to their good mechanical characteristics in terms of stiffness and strength coupled with mass-saving advantage and other attractive physico-chemical properties, composite materials are successfully used in medicine and nanotechnology fields. To this end, the chapters composing the book have been divided into the following sections: medicine, dental and pharmaceutical applications; nanocomposites for energy efficiency; characterization and fabrication, all of which provide an invaluable overview of this fascinating subject area. ...
Performance of a valve regulated lead/acid battery is affected by the properties of the positive grid corrosion layer. An investigation has been carried out using a range of experimental techniques to study the inﬂuence of corrosion layer composition and structure on cyclic performance. A number of designs of battery were manufactured with different grids and positive active materials (PAMs).
The name ‘power tool’ originally describes a tool that is powered by an electrical motor. Thus, the effort needed by an operator is reduced through using this tool. Today the term ‘power tool’ or ‘cordless tool’, as it is also called sometimes, is most commonly used for an electric tool, which is powered by batteries. This makes the user independent of power outlets. Power tools include drills and screwdrivers as well as hammers, saws, grinders, etc. They replace their electric power grid– connected equivalents.
The design, construction and testing of valve-regulated lead/acid cells with grid designs optimised for high-rate partial state-of-charge cycling for hybrid electric vehicles are described. Computer modelling was used to develop the grid designs. This showed that designs with opposed tabs and terminals on the top and bottom of the cell were likely to have the best performance not only in terms of grid conductivity but also for uniformity.
The 150 years history of the lead–acid battery has seen technological improvements in numerous areas, including grid alloy, jar material, and manufacturing methods. The most notable improvement is the valveregulated lead–acid (VRLA) battery, both absorbent glass mat and gel electrolyte versions.
King, Heywood and others foresee the potential
for further improvements in new car fuel economy,
up to a 50% reduction in L/100 km by 2030-2035,
mainly through the wider penetration of technolo-
gies leading up to, and including, fully hybridized
vehicles. The introduction of grid-connected bat-
tery electric vehicles (probably first as “plug-in” hy-
brids) would also contribute to efficiency improve-
ment (in addition to fuel shifts toward electricity),
assuming sustained progress in battery technol-
In a similar vein, Azuri Technologies has focused its attention
on African villages that are too remote to have any connection to
an electric power grid. Azuri’s technology uses solar cells and the
latest lithium battery technology to run two powerful LED lights
for up to eight hours, eliminating the need for expensive kerosene
lamps. What makes Azuri unique is its business model. Instead of
selling the system, Azuri leases it at a cost that even poor villagers
can afford. The basic equipment is available for a nominal fee, and
the customer then leases time on it by purchasing...