To transport people and material growing transportation systems are needed. More
and more of the energy for these systems is drawn from secondary batteries. The
reason for this trend is economic, but there is also an environmental need for a future
chance for electric traction. The actual development of electrochemical storage
systems with components like sodium–sulfur, sodium–nickel chloride, nickel–metal
hydride, zinc–bromine, zinc–air, and others, mainly intended for electric road
vehicles, make the classical lead-acid traction batteries look old-fashioned and
Manufacturers base the performance of electronic devices on a perfect battery, a condition that only exists when the battery is new. By reading Batteries in a Portable World, you will acquire a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the battery, learn about different battery types and discover what conditions are best for a battery.
The book is easy and entertaining to read and makes minimal use of technical jargon.
This chapter aims at providing an overview of products and systems using
batteries. Here, the term product indicates any device – small or large, portable
or not – powered by a battery. The term system indicates a large installation,
such as an energy storage plant to back up an electricity grid, or an extended
Solar electric plants shall be understood to be photovoltaic energy converters that are able to self-sufﬁciently satisfy a mean energy demand over a signiﬁcant period of time, be it an appliance that is permanently hooked up or just for sporadic power supply of appliances. Such plants have in common that their input and output quantities ﬂuctuate widely. They can therefore only be dimensioned on the basis of a mean value and are not able to satisfy this demand without the possibility to store energy. ...
Negative plates for lead–acid batteries containing lignin expander UP-414 with various phenolic group contents have been investigated. The members of the family of lignins UP-414 are produced by Borregaard LignoTech, Norway and differ mainly by the amount of phenolic groups and less so by the carboxylic groups in their structure, the content of all other functional groups (methoxyl, ketonic, etc.) being the same for all UP-414 products.
Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established
to work together in the development of lighter lead–acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials
and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to
substitute the heavy lead alloy grids mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge
and discharge reactions.
Electrically powered road vehicles are currently more and more debated and many new prototypes of vehicles and batteries have been presented, e.g. at the 18th International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition in October 2001 in Berlin, Germany, the world’s largest event on this topic under the motto ‘‘Clean and efﬁcient mobility for the millennium’’.
Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO2 ) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead–acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. Xray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of -PbO2 to -PbO2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming.
In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead–acid ŽVRLA. batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth ŽBi.-bearing oxide has been manufactured ŽBarton-pot method. ...
In the past several years, there have been many developments in the materials for lead–acid batteries. Silver in grid alloys for high temperature climates in SLI batteries has increased the silver content of the recycled lead stream. Concern about silver and other contaminants in lead for the active material for VRLA batteries led to the initiation of a study by ALABC at CSIRO. The study evaluated the effects of many different impurities on the hydrogen and oxygen evolution currents in ﬂoat service for ﬂooded and VRLA batteries at different temperatures and potentials. ...
Today the most important electrochemical storage systems for stationary applications are the lead-acid and the nickel/cadmium systems. Both of them have advantages and disadvantages which carefully have to be considered for best selection. Batteries for telecom applications are specially designed for long service life and hours of discharging time. Batteries for UPS applications are designed for discharges with high current over short times (minutes). Special battery constructions are offered for the different requirements. ...
The use of red lead in battery plates is not very well known to a large segment of the lead–acid battery industry. Historically, it was used in
pasted and tubular positive plates in order to improve their formation time and enhance deep-cycle performance. Although the use of red lead
has diminished over the last few decades, many companies are again considering the use of red lead in their plates. This article aims to give
manufacturers a solid knowledge of the properties of red lead, including production and handling methods.
A new technology for production of 4BS pastes for the positive (lead dioxide) plates of lead-acid batteries has been developed based on an Eirich Evactherm1 mixer. The basic principle of this new technology is that 4BS crystals with dimensions between 20 and 25 mm are formed ®rst from a semi-suspension at a temperature higher than 908C and then the excess water is removed from the semi-suspension under vacuum until the desired paste density is obtained. During the vacuum treatment the temperature of the paste decreases and small 4BS and PbO crystals are formed. ...
This chapter discusses aspects of the use of stationary batteries within the Deutsche Telekom AG. The names Deutsche Telekom or Telekom shall be used, although the responsibility for the area power supply for telecommunication networks was transferred to the Deutsche Telekom Immobilien und Service GmbH, (De Te Immobilien), a 100% subsidiary company of the Telekom, since January 1, 1996.
For many years, the plates of leadracid batteries have been produced from leady oxide, a mixture of finely divided lead Ž‘free-lead’. and lead monoxide. Although this material is generally satisfactory, it suffers from the disadvantages that it is variable in composition and requires complicated and lengthy processing after pasting to remove the residual free-lead. Plates made from leady oxide also require cycling before they achieve their full performance, and this can result in either depressed initial capacity or additional processing cost. ...
The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either ﬂat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick ﬂat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide.
Organic expanders play an important role in the lead–acid battery. This study presents the design of an electrochemical method which evaluates the influence of some commercial expanders on the performance of the negative plate. Examination is made of different commercial expander formulations which are prepared in the laboratory under carefully controlled conditions.
The effect of fast and three-step charge mode on the capacity and cycle life of lead±acid battery negative plates was investigated using a model mini electrode (ME). It has been found that the charge algorithm exerts a strong effect on the charge acceptance of the negative electrode. In the two-step charging mode I1, j2 with increase of the current at the ®rst step of charge, the capacity of the negative electrode decreases and the cycle life shortens. This phenomenon is reversible as it is probably due to the incomplete reduction of PbSO4 to Pb. The phenomenon is explained...
Pb–Ca foil laminated on rolled sheet for positive grid of lead-acid battery is proposed to prevent premature capacity loss (PCL) during charge–discharge cycling. Batteries with Pb–Ca foil laminated on positive grid had longer life during charge–discharge cycle than conventional battery, which failed early by PCL. PCL is a phenomenon due to the increase of the interfacial resistance between the positive grid and the positive active mass (PAM) during discharging by PbSO4 formation in the corrosion layer....
The innovative solution proposed in this paper to improve both cycling life and performances of a very low cost lead–acid battery is the combination of the compression concept and the use of micro-porous additives added in the active mass.