This chapter aims at providing an overview of products and systems using
batteries. Here, the term product indicates any device – small or large, portable
or not – powered by a battery. The term system indicates a large installation,
such as an energy storage plant to back up an electricity grid, or an extended
Since the maintenance-free sealed nickel/cadmium accumulator became of high importance in the market, in the middle of the 1950s (Figure 17.1), the German battery company Sonnenschein has invented the ﬁrst maintenance-free portable lead-acid batteries in small sizes in modules of 2 to 12 V between 1 and about 30 Ah. These batteries have been absolutely maintenance free and because of their immobilized electrolyte they could be used in any position without leakage.
Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established
to work together in the development of lighter lead–acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials
and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to
substitute the heavy lead alloy grids mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge
and discharge reactions.
Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO2 ) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead–acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. Xray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of -PbO2 to -PbO2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming.
Manufacturers base the performance of electronic devices on a perfect battery, a condition that only exists when the battery is new. By reading Batteries in a Portable World, you will acquire a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the battery, learn about different battery types and discover what conditions are best for a battery.
The book is easy and entertaining to read and makes minimal use of technical jargon.
Electrically powered road vehicles are currently more and more debated and many new prototypes of vehicles and batteries have been presented, e.g. at the 18th International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition in October 2001 in Berlin, Germany, the world’s largest event on this topic under the motto ‘‘Clean and efﬁcient mobility for the millennium’’.
During the last two decades of the 20th century the lithium battery technique played a more and more important part in the market,1 at ﬁrst for the more expensive special applications as, e.g. the military and air- and spacecraft technologies. Its technique is one of the more recent results of research and development in the ﬁelds of applied electrochemistry.
In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead–acid ŽVRLA. batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth ŽBi.-bearing oxide has been manufactured ŽBarton-pot method. ...
In the past several years, there have been many developments in the materials for lead–acid batteries. Silver in grid alloys for high temperature climates in SLI batteries has increased the silver content of the recycled lead stream. Concern about silver and other contaminants in lead for the active material for VRLA batteries led to the initiation of a study by ALABC at CSIRO. The study evaluated the effects of many different impurities on the hydrogen and oxygen evolution currents in ﬂoat service for ﬂooded and VRLA batteries at different temperatures and potentials. ...
The use of red lead in battery plates is not very well known to a large segment of the lead–acid battery industry. Historically, it was used in
pasted and tubular positive plates in order to improve their formation time and enhance deep-cycle performance. Although the use of red lead
has diminished over the last few decades, many companies are again considering the use of red lead in their plates. This article aims to give
manufacturers a solid knowledge of the properties of red lead, including production and handling methods.
The so-called classic accumulator is not yet exhausted concerning development possibilities. The newest trends in research and development indicate that new production methods offer more cost-efﬁcient methods for production of batteries than present production techniques, corresponding with presumptive large production numbers.
Today the most important electrochemical storage systems for stationary applications are the lead-acid and the nickel/cadmium systems. Both of them have advantages and disadvantages which carefully have to be considered for best selection. Batteries for telecom applications are specially designed for long service life and hours of discharging time. Batteries for UPS applications are designed for discharges with high current over short times (minutes). Special battery constructions are offered for the different requirements. ...
Some terms, which will be repeated throughout this book, shall be deﬁned more precisely: . . . . ‘‘Portable batteries’’ are understood to be all kinds of electrochemical energy-storing devices used in portable appliances regardless of whether they are rechargeable or not. Non-rechargeable batteries are called primary cells (batteries) or dry cells (batteries). Rechargeable batteries are called secondary batteries or accumulators. Also the terms ‘‘galvanic primary’’ and ‘‘galvanic secondary’’ cells are common. ...
Batteries are generally galvanic cells which convert chemical energy into electrical energy. As mobile sources of energy, we can no longer imagine life in the modern world without them. Every year in Germany, approximately 1 billion portable batteries are sold, an equivalent of around 30,000 tons (Table 19.1). We can state that 85% of the battery market comprises non-rechargeable primary batteries and 15% rechargeable secondary batteries.
A new technology for production of 4BS pastes for the positive (lead dioxide) plates of lead-acid batteries has been developed based on an Eirich Evactherm1 mixer. The basic principle of this new technology is that 4BS crystals with dimensions between 20 and 25 mm are formed ®rst from a semi-suspension at a temperature higher than 908C and then the excess water is removed from the semi-suspension under vacuum until the desired paste density is obtained. During the vacuum treatment the temperature of the paste decreases and small 4BS and PbO crystals are formed. ...
This chapter discusses aspects of the use of stationary batteries within the Deutsche Telekom AG. The names Deutsche Telekom or Telekom shall be used, although the responsibility for the area power supply for telecommunication networks was transferred to the Deutsche Telekom Immobilien und Service GmbH, (De Te Immobilien), a 100% subsidiary company of the Telekom, since January 1, 1996.
Lead-acid starter batteries are used in land, sea, and air vehicles. Batteries for vehicles are discussed in this chapter. The production of starter batteries approaches 60 million pieces. About 16 million pieces are used for motor vehicle production and about 38 million pieces keep the vehicles ready for operation as back-up batteries. A considerable number of imported and exported pieces play a part in this market. With these numbers Europe achieves about two-thirds of the U.S. production. ...
For many years, the plates of leadracid batteries have been produced from leady oxide, a mixture of finely divided lead Ž‘free-lead’. and lead monoxide. Although this material is generally satisfactory, it suffers from the disadvantages that it is variable in composition and requires complicated and lengthy processing after pasting to remove the residual free-lead. Plates made from leady oxide also require cycling before they achieve their full performance, and this can result in either depressed initial capacity or additional processing cost. ...
Pb–Ca foil laminated on rolled sheet for positive grid of lead-acid battery is proposed to prevent premature capacity loss (PCL) during charge–discharge cycling. Batteries with Pb–Ca foil laminated on positive grid had longer life during charge–discharge cycle than conventional battery, which failed early by PCL. PCL is a phenomenon due to the increase of the interfacial resistance between the positive grid and the positive active mass (PAM) during discharging by PbSO4 formation in the corrosion layer....
The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either ﬂat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick ﬂat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide.