Our results generally showed that in the investigated microbial community
autotrophic component was dominant over the heterotrophic component during the winter
season, while dominance of heterotrophic component in the microbial community was
observed during the warmer seasons. Further, within the prokaryotic community
heterotrophic prokaryotes were mostly dominant throughout the studied area.
Yadav et al. (2007) studied on fertilizer industrial discharge showed that some components
in the discharge may interact with each other and produce toxic to aquatic organisms. For
instance, the interaction between dissolved oxygen and ammonia changed the respiratory
physiology in fresh water fish. In addition, results showed that the toxicity of the effluent in
fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure.
Since there is a premium put on specialized talents and backgrounds and the need to
attract capital by performing exceptionally well, I have found that investors require relatively
high minimum annual rates of returns in the 20-25% range. The risky and illiquid nature of this
market make such required returns necessary. As we will show, however, the average
performance in this market over the last 11 years, although good, has been considerably below
the 20-25% per year range. The remainder of this chapter reports on the performance of
defaulted bonds in the 1987-1998 period.
This analysis takes as given that improved information and accounting methods are
costly. While costs will vary across different types of improved information -- and are by no
means always easy to measure -- they are conceptually straightforward to define. Information's
costs include the labor and capital costs necessary to acquire, apply, and verify new
information. The costs may be associated with a diverse set of activities, including technical
R&D, financial analysis, process engineering studies, software development, inventory
controls, and supplier surveys.
The objective of this thesis was to study the interactions of microbial activity, biocide usage
and creation, and chemical changes in the papermaking process. The main focus was on
oxidative biocide systems. In addition, new measurement and biocide production methods
were applied to papermaking, and evaluated for the monitoring and control of the
microbiological state and biocide usage. The measurement methods were based on portable
handheld online equipments whereas the biocide production was based on electrochemical
generation of biocides.
In addition, the Act significantly narrows the exemptions from registration contained in (i) Section
203(b)(1) of the Advisers Act (which generally exempts from SEC registration intrastate advisers) to
expressly exclude investment managers that advise Private Funds, and (ii) Section 203(b)(6) of the
Advisers Act (which generally exempts from SEC registration advisers registered with the Commodities
Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) as commodity trading advisers) to limit that exception to
advisers who do not “predominately” provide securities-related advice.
This potential disparity in availability of
private insurance between regions and
crops is sometimes cited as a reason for
government intervention (U.S. GAO, 1980;
Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999), but
here again, crop insurance is not unique.
Many risk management tools used by
farmers are available only in certain
regions. For example, cash forward
contracting is widely available for corn
and soybean producers in the Midwest,
although the same is not necessarily true
for producers in regions where basis risk
To which extent this decrease in bond yields is associated with changes in short-term
or long-term rates becomes more evident when looking at the yield curve defined as
the 10-year government bond yield minus the three months Euribor shown in Figure
2. Over the entire year, the slope of the yield curve fell by roughly 20 bp to somewhat
less than 130 bp. The same trend is also illustrated by the implied one-year forward
rate in nine years, as extracted from the German zero-coupon curve.
The rate falls
by 10 bp in the course of year, although there are sizeable developments over time.
The urban-rural meta-narrative seems likely to have a generally positive impact on these D-P
types, as they are net gainers in terms of population and economic activity, due both to
counter-urbanisation and in-migration from remoter regions. The Globalisation meta narrative
(here interpreted mainly in terms of economic restructuring effects) is also likely to have
predominantly positive impacts upon these types of non-urban region.
Should you invest in a penthouse or in a studio? A three-story colonial or a two-bedroom ranch?
The first time out, it’s probably best to invest in something on the small side. Unless you’re buying
a move-in condition property and have a reliable tenant waiting in the wings, there’ll probably be
a period of time before your investment starts generating income. During that period, you’ll have
to make loan payments on the investment property from your regular income.
In June 2001, independent research ﬁrm Computer Economics released the results of a study on potential privacy problems in different
industry sectors. Banking and ﬁnance organizations were determined to be the most susceptible to privacy management problems. The
transportation, wholesale, and retail industries also ranked high on the privacy problem susceptibility index compiled by Computer
The pricing of credit-sensitive bonds, that is, bonds which have a significant probability of
default, is an issue of increasing academic and practical importance. The recent practice in
financial markets has been to issue high yield corporate bonds that are a hybrid of equity and
risk-free debt. Also, to an extent, most corporate bonds are credit-sensitive instruments,
simply because of the limited liability of the issuing enterprise. In this paper, we suggest and
implement a model for the pricing of options on credit-sensitive bonds.
However, while this phenomenon has gained more attention over the past years, as Prasad et
al. (2007) remark, this fact even seems to hold over a longer period. Over the whole period
from 1970 to 2000, developing countries and emerging markets with more favourable and
even positive current account positions (which implies net capital exports of these countries)
have recorded higher per-capita GDP growth rates.
Los efectos de primer orden de las restricciones leves a la entrada de bancos han sido favorables, tanto
dentro de Estados Unidos como en otros países. A nivel internacional, los beneficios de dejar entrar
bancos extranjeros parecen depender del grado de desarrollo, pero al menos en los países en
desarrollo los bancos que llegan son más eficientes que los que ya están, y la competencia más ruda
parece mejorar la eficiencia de la banca en general. Contrastando con estos efectos de primer orden,
las implicancias de una mayor entrada sobre la estabilidad no son tan obvias.
In this section we develop a simple model of operating cash flows and the accounting process by which operating cash flow forecasts are incorporated into accounting earnings. The model explains why operating cash flow changes have negative serial correlation and how earnings incorporate the negative serial correlation to become a better forecast of future operating cash flows than current operating cash flows. The model also explains other time series properties of earnings, operating cash flows and accruals.
The Group assesses the recoverability of deferred tax assets based on estimates of future
earnings.The ability to recover these taxes depends ultimately on the Group’s ability to
generate taxable earnings over the period for which the deferred tax assets remain
deductible.This analysis is based on the estimated schedule for reversing deferred tax
liabilities, as well as estimates of taxable earnings, which are sourced from internal projections
and are continuously updated to reflect the latest trends.
The Product Backlog will include a variety of items, such as features (“enable all users to place
book in shopping cart”), development requirements (“rework the transaction processing
module to make it scalable”), exploratory work (“investigate solutions for speeding up credit
card validation”), and known bugs (“diagnose and fix the order processing script errors”).
Many people like to articulate the requirements in terms of “user stories”: concise, clear
descriptions of the functionality in terms of its value to the end user of the product.
Almost all of the Ph.D. students are either financed by some form of fellowship or
assistantship. Of course, it is better to have a fellowship in the first year so that you don’t devote
any time or energy for teaching or grading purposes. But being a TA is not a bad thing. One of
the authors of this paper believes that teaching and even grading (unless you happen to grade 400
homeworks every weekend) during the first year helps you to relax. In addition to that, it is very
likely that after finishing your Ph.D. you will need to teach...
Floods can cause serious indirect impacts, including damage to important energy, water, communications and
transport infrastructure. They can also interfere with basic public services such as schools and hospitals.
The National Flood Risk Assessment shows that a sizeable part of our important infrastructure and public services
are in flood risk areas. This is especially so for water-related infrastructure that needs to be near rivers. For
example, over 55 per cent of water and sewage pumping stations/treatment works are in flood risk areas, with 34
per cent at significant risk....
A third has to do with the asym-
metry in information between provider and pa-
tient concerning the outcomes of intervention;
providers advise patients on choice of treatment,
and when the providers' income is linked to this
advice, excessive treatment can result. As a conse-
quence of these last two considerations, in unregu-
lated private markets costs escalate without appre-
ciable health gains to the patient.