Behavioral medicine

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  • When I was invited to write this book, little did I know the odyssey upon which I was about to embark. This is the first book to investigate and synthesize scientific data about psychoactive herbs relevant to the specialty of veterinary behavior. Many of the herbs discussed have impressive proof to substantiate their use; others, less so; some have no proof at all, at least not yet. Let us not forget the many mainstream medicines that are plant derived (e.g.

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  • It is sometimes said that committees of more than seven are less efficient than individuals, but the Fifth International Veterinary Behavior Meeting would never have succeeded if it was down to the efforts of a single individual or even a small committee. It is testament to the exceptional team work of individuals within many committees and their skillful management and leadership that we are able to produce this latest volume. We are indebted to everyone who has helped in whatever way to make this meeting a success and helped these biennial meetings grow each time.

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  • Several studies have shown that deficient uptake or excessive break down of membrane phospholipids may be associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of postnatal iron administration in lipid composition and behavior and whether or not the established effects may be altered by subchronic administration of the neuroleptic compounds, clozapine and haloperidol.

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  • The understanding ofd-amino acid metabolism in higher plants lags far behind that in mammals, for which the biological functions of these unique amino acids have already been elucidated. In this article, we report on the biochemical behavior ofd-amino acids (particularly d-Asp) and relevant metabolic enzymes inArabidopsis thaliana.

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  • This is the VOA Special English Health Report. Researchers say more than half of young people who use MySpace often discuss highrisk behaviors. Two studies of the social networking site recently appeared in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.

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  • We report the results of experiments on economic decisions with two populations, one of healthy elderly individuals (average age 82) and one of younger students (average age 20). We examine confidence, decisions under uncertainty, differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept and the theory of mind (strategic thinking). Our findings indicate that the older adults’ decision behavior is similar to that of young adults, contrary to the notion that economic decision making is impaired with age.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 29. Disorders of the Eye The Human Visual System The visual system provides a supremely efficient means for the rapid assimilation of information from the environment to aid in the guidance of behavior. The act of seeing begins with the capture of images focused by the cornea and lens upon a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye, called the retina. The retina is actually part of the brain, banished to the periphery to serve as a transducer for the conversion of patterns of light energy into neuronal signals.

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  • Solid mechanics, which includes the theories of elasticity and plasticity, is a broad discipline, with experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects, and with a twofold aim: on the one hand, it seeks to describe the mechanical behavior of solids under conditions as general as possible, regardless of shape, interaction with other bodies, field of application, or the like; on the other hand, it attempts to provide solutions to specific problems involving stressed solid bodies that arise in civil and mechanical engineering, geophysics, physiology, and other applied disciplines.

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  • Surprisingly the toxicity level of fertilizer industry discharge may influence by the environmental factors such as conductivity, temperature, pH, cardon dioxide (CO2), oxygen and elements. Through studies, these factors will influence the behavior and certain biochemical indices of the fish, such as C. striatus, by acting either in synergistic, antagonistic or simple additive manner (Yadav et al., 2005; Bobmanuel et al., 2006; Yadav et al., 2007). A high conductivity value indicates high concentration of dissolved ion within the industrial discharge.

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  • In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 26. Confusion and Delirium Confusion and Delirium: Introduction Confusion, a mental and behavioral state of reduced comprehension, coherence, and capacity to reason, is one of the most common problems encountered in medicine, accounting for a large number of emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and inpatient consultations. Delirium, a term used to describe an acute confusional state, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, contributing billions of dollars yearly to health care costs in the United States alone.

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  • Host Factors in Infection For any infectious process to occur, the pathogen and the host must first encounter each other. Factors such as geography, environment, and behavior thus influence the likelihood of infection. Although the initial encounter between a susceptible host and a virulent organism frequently results in disease, some organisms can be harbored in the host for years before disease becomes clinically evident. For a complete view, individual patients must be considered in the context of the population to which they belong.

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  • Current recommendations also include influenza vaccine for routine annual administration to individuals with chronic illness at any age, to persons living in the same household as chronically ill individuals, and to all adults 50 years of age. Polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is similarly recommended for adults ≥65 years of age and for all chronically ill persons.

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  • Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).

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  • Lifestyle Management Obesity care involves attention to three essential elements of lifestyle: dietary habits, physical activity, and behavior modification. Because obesity is fundamentally a disease of energy imbalance, all patients must learn how and when energy is consumed (diet), how and when energy is expended (physical activity), and how to incorporate this information into their daily life (behavior therapy). Lifestyle management has been shown to result in a modest (typically 3– 5 kg) weight loss compared to no treatment or usual care.

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  • Research suggests that non-expert individuals are typically overconfident; they overestimate the quality of their own abilities or knowledge (Svenson 1981, Weinstein 1980) and state extreme probabilities more often than they should. Work in economic theory, particularly with business-related forecasting, has provided further support for this behavioral phenomenon (Camerer and Lovallo, 1999). The reasons for overconfidence when answering trivia questions are a subject of intense debate among decision theorists (Ayton and McClelland 1997). Three prominent explanations have emerged.

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  • The cache diffusion algorithm then works as follows. Every time the root basestation receives a tuple that does not join, it sends the maximal ERD which that tuple inter- sects one hop in the direction that the tuple came from. This node then checks its local value cache for tuples that are contained within this ERD. If one is found, this value and any other values that overlap with the ERD are re- moved from the local value cache, and the ERD is added to the ERD cache table with priority 1. If no match is found, then the ERD...

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  • Two other factors are likely to aid growth in the near term. 4 One is inventory investment. Throughout the current recession, businesses have reduced inventory investment substantially. Businesses have chosen to curtail production and run down existing stocks. This behavior has led to a situation where even just a return to normal behavior implies a substantial rise in inventory investment, and thus a powerful short-run impetus to growth. Renewed inventory investment should spur production and job creation throughout the economy.

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  • Source: Modified from RR Kempainen, DD Brunette: Resp. Care 49:192, 2004.Physical examination findings can also be altered by hypothermia. For instance, the assumption that areflexia is solely attributable to hypothermia can obscure and delay the diagnosis of a spinal cord lesion. Patients with hypothermia may be confused or combative; these symptoms abate more rapidly with rewarming than with the use of restraints.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Part 2. Cardinal Manifestations and Presentation of Diseases Section 6. Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function Chapter 33. Dyspnea and Pulmonary Edema Dyspnea The American Thoracic Society defines dyspnea as a "subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity. The experience derives from interactions among multiple physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors, and may induce secondary physiological and behavioral responses.

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