A final selection of 40 students was made in early June 2010, and the students instructed to complete
IELTS application forms by 24 June 2010 in order to sit the test on 10 July 2010. All students sat for
the Test on this date, and the results were provided to the Principal Researcher a fortnight later. The
Principal Researcher then invited the students to collect their certificate (referred to as Test 2 scores)
in person, at which point they were asked if they would be willing to be interviewed individually to
provide feedback on their English language learning and development...
Functional testing is a type of black box testing that bases its test cases on the specifications of the software component under test. Functions are tested by feeding them input and examining the output, and internal program structure is rarely considered (not like in white-box testing).
Functional testing differs from system testing in that functional testing "verif[ies] a program by checking it against ... design document(s) or specification(s)", while system testing "validate[s] a program by checking it against the published user or system requirements"...
Structural Testing is used to verify the static strength, or fatigue strength of a component by applying measured loads to the test item. Testing can be done to failure, to contractual requirements or to validate finite element model predictions. DTB has successfully completed thousands of structural tests on items ranging in size and complexity from simple coupons to entire aircraft.
Fatigue Testing is carried out with the objective of determining the relationship between the stress range and the number of times it can be applied before causing failure....
SYSTEM DESIGN AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Hanushek cautions: If the efficiency of our school
systems is due to poor incentives for teachers and administrators coupled with poor decisionmaking
by consumers, it would be unwise to expect much from programs that seek to
strengthen market forces in the selection of schools, (1981, p. 34-35; emphasis added).
Moreover, if students outcomes depend importantly on the characteristics of their
What would science be without measurement, and what would social
science be without social measurement? Social measurement belongs
to the widely accepted and fruitful stream of the empirical-analytic
approach. Statistics and research methodology play a central role, and
it is difficult to ascertain precisely when it all started in the social
sciences. An important subfield of social measurement is the quantification
of human behavior—that is, using measurement instruments
of which educational and psychological tests are the most prominent
In the Essentials of Behavioral Science series, our goal is to provide readers with
books that will deliver key practical information in an efficient, accessible style.
The series features books on a variety of topics, such as statistics, psychological
testing, and research design and methodology, to name just a few. For the experienced
professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of
a specific area of expertise, including numerous tips for best practices.
Forty years ago there was hardly a ﬁeld called ‘behavioral sciences’. In fact, psychology largely
was the behavioral sciences, with some help from group theory in sociology and decision-
making in economics. Now, of course, psychology has expanded and developed in a myriad
of ways, to the point where ‘behavioral sciences’ is often the more useful term. Physiological
psychology has become neuroscience, covering areas not previously part of psychology.
Decision-making has become decision science, involving people from economics, marketing,
and other disciplines.
BOUNDARY BEHAVIOR OF LEADERS ORGANIZATION: DEFINITION AND SCALE DEVELOPMENT My test of parental valuations requires data describing the distribution of peer groups
and outcomes across schools within housing markets that differ in the amount of Tiebout
choice. I describe first my measure of market structure, defined over district-level
By the middle of the seventeenth century it had come to be understood that the
world was enclosed in a sea of air, much as the greater part of it was covered by water. A
scientist of the period, Francesco Lana, contended that a lighter-than-air ship could float
upon this sea, and he suggested how such a ship might be built. He was unable to put his
invention to a practical test, but he saw only one reason why it might not work:
A. Which word is stressed differently from the others? 1. A. explanation B. situation C. conversation D. contagious 2. A. tranquility B. prehistoric C. accuracy D. behavior 3. A. understand B. condition C. formation D. decision 4. A. parade B. people C. begin D. decide 5. A. experience B. discovery C. intensity D. violation B. Which underlined part is pronounced differently?
Test-Driven Infrastructure with Chef demonstrates a radical approach to developing web infrastructure that combines the powerful Chef configuration management framework with Cucumber, the leading Behavior-driven development (BDD) tool. Learn how to deliver real business value by developing infrastructure code test-first.
In statistical machine translation, a researcher seeks to determine whether some innovation (e.g., a new feature, model, or inference algorithm) improves translation quality in comparison to a baseline system. To answer this question, he runs an experiment to evaluate the behavior of the two systems on held-out data. In this paper, we consider how to make such experiments more statistically reliable.
This project concerns building a document parser that can be used as a software engineering tool. A software tester's task frequently involves comparing the behavior of a running system with a document describing the behavior of the system. If a problem is found, it may indicate an update is required to the document, the software system, or both. A tool to generate tests automatically based on documents would be very useful to software engineers, but it requires a document parser which can identify and extract testable conditions in the text. ...
Symbolic execution builds predicates that characterize the conditions under which execution paths can be taken and the effect of the execution on program state. Extracting predicates through symbolic execution is the essential bridge from the complexity of program behavior to the simpler and more orderly world of logic. This chapter presents the symbolic execution and proof of properties.
Walnut trees shade the streets of Davis, California. They also provide food for the
crows that roost near Davis. Crows crack walnuts by dropping them from heights of
5–10 meters or more onto sidewalks, roads, and parking lots. Occasionally they drop
walnuts in front of approaching cars, as if using the cars to crush the nuts for them. Do
crows intentionally use cars as nutcrackers? Some of the citizens of Davis, as well as
some professional biologists (Maple 1974, in Cristol et al.
In the past few years, India has made rapid
improvement in provision of services on
prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The
number of Integrated Counseling and Testing
Centres (ICTC) increased from only 2815 in
2005-2006 to 5135 till December 2009 and
the number of persons tested in the
corresponding year increased from 2.7 million
to more than 7 million. The number of
pregnant women counseled under the PPTCT
services increased from 1.3 million in 2005
to 4.4 million in 2009.
Models are often used to express requirements, and embed both structure and fault information that can help generate test case specifications. Control flow and data flow testing are based on models extracted from program code. Models can also be extracted from specifications and design, allowing us to make use of additional information about intended behavior.
In this chapter, we begin with functional tests based on specification of intended behavior, add selected structural test cases based on the software structure, and work from unit testing and small-scale integration testing toward larger integration and then system testing.
The essential characteristics of system testing are that it is comprehensive, based on a specification of observable behavior, and independent of design and implementation decisions. Independence in system testing avoids repeating software design errors in test design. Acceptance testing abandons specifications in favor of users, and measures how the final system meets users' expectations. Regression testing checks for faults introduced during evolution.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Molecular diagnostics for dermatology" presents the following contents: Introduction, basics of nucleic acids and molecular biology, molecular methods; risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis - using molecular tools to diagnose melanoma, predict its behavior and evaluate for inheritable forms,...