The theory and practice of molecular ecology draw on a number of subjects,
particularly genetics, ecology and evolutionary biology. Although the foundations
of molecular ecology are not particularly new, it did not emerge until the 1980s as
the discipline that we now recognize. Since that time the growth of molecular
ecology has been explosive, in part because molecular data are becoming increasingly
accessible and also because it is, by its very nature, a collaborative discipline.
Molecular Approaches to Behavioural Ecology
Using Molecules to Study Behaviour
Behavioural ecology is a branch of biology that seeks to understand how an animal’s response to a particular situation or stimulus is influenced by its ecology and evolutionary history.
As a premise to this textbook on Numerical ecology, the authors wish to state their
opinion concerning the role of data analysis in ecology. In the above quotation, Goethe
cautioned readers against the use of mathematics in the natural sciences. In his
opinion, mathematics may obscure, under an often esoteric language, the natural
phenomena that scientists are trying to elucidate. Unfortunately, there are many
examples in the ecological literature where the use of mathematics unintentionally lent
support to Goethe’s thesis.
Numerous authors proposed chapters on their work, and those presented here are the
fruit of those proposals. As editor of this book, it has been my pleasure to collaborate
with these many, fine contributing scientists. This text brings forth a great amount of
fresh information on the biogeography and ecology of poorly known taxa and
landscapes, and explores biogeographic processes not previously studied. The
assembled work is an anthology of issues in modern biogeography, with topics
ranging across regional to global spatial scales, and ecological to evolutionary
ASRM and the College of American Pathologists administer a reproductive
laboratory accreditation program for embryology labs to assure that they conform
to high national standards of quality. ASRM also produces ethics and practice
guidelines. Its affiliate, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology
(SART), strictly monitors member clinics for adherence to ASRM guidelines,
accreditation of their embryology labs, qualification of their staff, and submission
of data to the CDC.
The scientific literature suggests that the best unit
to assess ecosystems is the 'socio-ecological system
(SES)' (Gallopin, 1991, Glaser, 2008). SES integrates
ecosystem functions and dynamics as well as
human activities and the interactions of all these.
The SES is equivalent to the SNA's institutional
unit. Considering the production of ecosystem
services, and in particular provisioning services,
SESs are more or less homogenous.
In response to various pressures, businesses have begun to report externally on their
environmental policy and performance. The significance of such external reporting depends on
the extent of changes in management culture and systems and on how new measures influence
management decisions. The 'greening of accountancy' involves a reappraisal of how to identify
and measure the relevant costs of processes and products (such as 'Total Cost Assessment') and
a redesign of incentive mechanisms.
The aim of this new interdisciplinary series is to promote the exchange of information
between scientists working in different fields, who are involved in the study of complex
systems, and to foster education and training of young scientists entering this rapidly
developing research area.
This should be a puzzle. Much of the rationale for development economics as a
specialization is the thought that poor countries suffer particularly frominstitutional failures.But
institutional failures in greatmeasuremanifest themselves as externalities. To ignore population
growth and ecological constraints in the study of poor countries would be to suppose that
demographic decisions and resource-use there give rise to no externalities of significance, and
that externalities arising from institutional failure have a negligible effect on resource-use and