The content of this book has become ever more relevant after the recent 2007–2009 and 2011 financial
crises, one consequence of which was greatly increased scepticism among investment professionals about
the received wisdom drawn from standard finance, modern portfolio theory and its later developments.
The objectives of this chapter are to switching models. In this chapter, you will learn how to: Use intercept and slope dummy variables to allow for seasonal behaviour in time series, motivate the use of regime switching models in financial econometrics, specify and explain the logic behind Markov switching models,...
Chapter 4 - Exchange rate determination. The objectives of this chapter are: to present some stylised facts about the observed behaviour of exchange rates, to identify the factors that lead to changes in the supply of and demand for foreign exchange and, consequently, the exchange rate,...
Drawing on a large and wide-ranging literature on consumer behaviour, this report argues
that psychological rather than informational differences may explain much of the variation in
financial capability reported in the FSA's financial capability survey, and that people's
financial behaviour may primarily depend on their intrinsic psychological attributes rather
than information or skills or how they choose to deploy them.
A detailed empirical study of how small business owners finance their
enterprises, this volume compares the experiences of women with
those of men. The author redresses an over-reliance on subjective
and anecdotal evidence of discrimination in this area with a controlled
study of forty matched pairs of male/female owners, and their
strategies for raising finances.
The book finds considerable similarities between female and male
entrepreneurs in the type and amount of finance used in the business.
In response to various pressures, businesses have begun to report externally on their
environmental policy and performance. The significance of such external reporting depends on
the extent of changes in management culture and systems and on how new measures influence
management decisions. The 'greening of accountancy' involves a reappraisal of how to identify
and measure the relevant costs of processes and products (such as 'Total Cost Assessment') and
a redesign of incentive mechanisms.
HAYEK’S THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE. All through last century, the Austrian School of Economics introduced a series of original and interesting ideas into social sciences, which are still fruitful for contemporary research.
But there is another potential impact for the
environment and nature conservation which
is a much more positive one. The 1999
structural fund regulations for the first time
recognised that the funds could be used
for the protection and improvement of the
environment (emphasis added). This change
in wording was extremely significant – for
the first time the doors were open to local
and regional authorities and national governments
to start putting forward environmental
and nature programme proposals which
meet the European Union’s cohesion policy
objectives set out in the Treaty.
The Government in May 2011 approved the Medium Term Plan (MTP), which is expected to drive economic growth over the next five years, 2011-15. The Plan will guide the formulation of National Budgets and other social-economic policies of the State. The MTP requires US$9 billion to be implemented over the period 2011-15 and funding is expected from the domestic and external sources including reliance on Public Private Partnership (PPP).
Similarly, policy documents may set certain limitations on the executive. For example,
the board may have a policy regarding finances that states the executive will not un-
reasonably risk organizational assets, including property, unnecessary liability, insuf-
ficient fund controls, or investing organizational surplus in insecure instruments. Or
the board may have a policy limiting the executive from imprudent business practices,
such as treating employees unfairly or choosing violating ethical standards relative to
the organization’s field of practice.
Throughout Europe, savings banks share common values, such as local ties, a positive attitude
to all customers not excluding certain categories of clients, together with a socially responsi-
ble behaviour. Savings banks therefore embody a “stakeholder” model, seeking to bring value
and return to the whole community of stakeholders, which surround them (investors, suppli-
ers, customers, employees and the local community in which they operate).
GDP, as a volume output measure, does not tell whether house prices are too high as compared to incomes. It
also does not tell how homes are financed and what risks such financing methods represent. It does not tell
whether incomes keep pace with inflation levels. It also does not tell whether the production capacity is too
high for the demand levels -an output gap- or that demand levels are too low -an income gap. It does not
show the labour force participation rate, when sometimes job seekers are so disappointed in finding jobs that
Another key element in this regard is the creation of attractive investment packages for
potential buyers, possibly with government financial support. If the government does not
have sufficient access to specialized knowledge for the effective restructuring and
management of assets, taxpayers may be forced to cover disproportionately high losses,
despite a purchase price that accurately reflects the underlying value of the illiquid assets.
The gross cost increase of approximately $3.8 billion is primarily driven by: (i) the scope
evolution of the WTC Transportation Hub (“Hub”) in response to the mandate to open
the National September 11 Memorial and Museum (the “Memorial”) by September 11,
2011, (ii) anticipated allowances to commercialize One World Trade Center (“1 WTC”)
and the retail spaces, (iii) projects performed by the Port Authority on behalf of third‐
parties at the site (i.e.
Aggregate saving is an important source of funds for domestic investment and economic
growth and thus the question of what determines its level and rate remains a crucial research and
policy agenda. Moreover, in the face of volatile flows of external finance, domestic saving has
become even more critical for economic development.
This Guide has been produced by the Credit Supply Clearing Group, which was set
up by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Innovation and the Department of
Finance, to develop initiatives to help support the funding of Irish businesses. The
membership of the Credit Supply Clearing Group is set out at Appendix 1.
As part of its work, the Credit Supply Clearing Group established two sub-groups to
address the following issues of:
Building Banking Relationships and Confidence Promotion, and the Cost of Finance
to Irish businesses.
Professor de Meza draws attention to recent literature which indicates that, in the context of
widespread behavioural biases, two modes of financial capability work appear to be the most
promising. These are the use of 'norms', which means directing people to a particular action
such as higher saving, and the use of active intervention by a councillor and/or individualised
advice, rather than passive information or education.
An innovative approach to starting a commercial finance corporation would be to take
advantage of the banking sector’s current trend toward consolidation. As noted above, there
are several banks that may not be sustainable under the increased capital requirements set by
the National Bank of Georgia. This could provide an opportunity to work with the National
Bank to sell the deposits of one or more of these weak banks including the franchise value of
any unneeded branches, and convert the operations to a CFC.
All respondents welcomed the introduction of the Standard as a tool to help catalyse investment in the low carbon economy.
Some comments reflected the need for a better accuracy in the explanation of what the Standard is aiming to achieve. For
example, some interpreted the aims of the Standard for financing of new green assets and as such would require
‘additionality’ tests of some sort. The aim to support re-financing of existing assets was not apparent.
In addition, the explanation of the Standard’s role in relation to the Low Carbon Economy was commented on.
To complement investment climate
improvements and to help unleash supply response, direct support is sometimes
appropriate for formal small and medium firms as well as entrepreneurs in informal
settings, for example, in rural areas. Such support may comprise both finance and advice,
for example, rural credit and extension services. Several decades of attempts to provide
such support have shed light on the key success factors. First and foremost, successful
direct support to firms requires a sound investment climate that provides incentives to use
public support well.