Cuộc khủng hoảng tài chính hiện nay được tạo ra bởi bong bóng thị trường nhà đất Mỹ. Có những điểm giống những cuộc khủng hoảng xảy ra từ sau kết thúc cuộc chíên tranh thế giới lần thứ II trong khoảng từ 4 đến 10 năm một lần.
Tuy nhiên, có điểm khác nhau sâu sắc: cái đích của cuộc khủng hoảng hiện tại là kết thúc một thời đại mở rộng tín dụng dựa vào đồng đô-la như là dự trữ tiền tệ quốc tế.
Chapter 6 - Efficiency, exchange, and the invisible hand in action. In chapter 6 our focus will shift to the seller’s side of the market, where our task will be to see why upward-sloping supply curves are a consequence of production decisions taken by firms whose goal is to maximize profit.
In chapter 8 we will investigate the economic forces by which the invisible hand of the marketplace guides profit-seeking firms and satisfaction-seeking consumers in ways that, to a surprising degree, serve society’s ends. These forces encourage aggressive cost cutting by firms, even though the resulting gains will eventually take the form of lower prices rather than higher profits.
Chapter 11 - Spending, income, and GDP. When you finish this chapter, you should be able to: Explain how economist define and measure an economy's output, apply the expenditure method for measuring GDP to analyze economic activity, define and compute nominal GDP and real GDP, discuss the relationships between GDP and economic well-being.
Chapter 13 - Wages and unemployment. Learning objectives of this chapter include: Discuss the four important trends that have characterized labor markets in the U.S. since 1960, apply a supply-and-demand model to understand the labor market, explain how changes in the supply of and demand for labor explain trends in real wages and employment since 1960,...
This chapter identify the four phases of the business cycle; explain the primary characteristics of recessions and expansions; define potential output, measure the output gap, and analyze an economy's position in the business cycle; define the natural rate of unemployment and relate it to cyclical unemployment; apply okun's law to analyze the relationship between the output gap and cyclical unemployment; discuss the differences between how the economy operates in the short run and the long run.
Until now, the brilliant methods and tactics that world-renowned investor and hedge fund king George Soros used to amass billions have remained a closely-guarded secret. In Soros: The Unauthorized Biography, renowned biographer and former Time reporter Robert Slater has looked behind closed doors to reveal the unique philosophy and investment strategies that have given this Hungarian-born billionaire enormous influence over world financial markets.
Chapter 1 - Thinking like an economist. This chapter to show that the Cost-Benefit Principle, deciding whether to take an action by comparing the cost and benefit of the action, is a useful approach for dealing with the inevitable trade-offs that scarcity creates. After discussing several important decision pitfalls, the chapter concludes by describing the Incentive Principle and introducing the concept of economic naturalism.
Chapter 2 - Comparative advantage. Chapter 2 goes beyond individual decision making to consider trade among both individuals and countries. An important reason for trade is the Principle of Comparative Advantage: by specializing in the production of particular goods and services, people and countries enhance their productivity and raise standards of living.
Chapter 3 presents an overview of the concepts of supply and demand, perhaps the most basic and familiar tools used by economists. These tools are used to show the final two Core Principles: the Efficiency Principle (efficiency is an important social goal because when the economics pie grows larger, everyone can have a larger slice) and the Equilibrium Principle (a market in equilibrium leaves no unexploited opportunities for individuals but may not exploit all gains achievable through collective action).
Chapter 4 - Demand and elasticity. We begin in chapter 4 by exploring the concept of elasticity, which describes the sensitivity of demand and supply to variations in prices, incomes, and other economic factors.
Chapter 5 - Perfectly competitive supply. In our discussion of supply and demand in part 1, we asked you simply to assume the law of demand, which says that demand curves are downward-sloping. In chapter 5 we will see that this law is a simple consequence of the fact that people spend their limited incomes in rational ways.
Chapter 7 - Monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Our agenda in chapter 7 is to develop more carefully and fully the concept of economic surplus introduced in part 1 and to investigate the conditions under which unregulated markets generate the largest possible economic surplus. We will also explore why attempts to interfere with market outcomes often lead to unintended and undesired consequences.
Chapter 9 - Externalities and property rights. In chapter 9 we will investigate how the allocation of resources is affected when activities generate costs or benefits that accrue to people not directly involved in those activities. We will see that if parties cannot easily negotiate with one another, the selfserving actions of individuals will not lead to efficient outcomes
Chapter 10 - Using economics to make better policy decisions. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe how the Scarcity Principle applies to choices involving health, use the incentive principle to explain why health care costs have been rising so rapidly, discuss pollution taxes and effluent permits as a means to reduce the cost of improved air quality,...
This chapter include objectives: Explain how the Consumer Price Index is constructed and use it to calculate the inflation rate; show how the CPI is used to adjust economic data to eliminate the effects of inflation; discuss the two most important biases in the CPI; distinguish between inflation and relative price changes to find the true cost of inflation; summarize the connections among inflation, nominal interest rates, and real interest rates.
Chapter 14 - Economic growth. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Show how small differences in growth rates lead to large differences in living standards, explain why GDP per capita is average labor productivity times the proportion of the population employed, discuss the determinants of average labor productivity,...
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain the relationship between savings and wealth, identify and apply the components of national saving, discuss the reasons why people save, discuss the reasons why firms choose to invest in capital rather than financial assets, analyze financial markets using the tools of supply and demand.
In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe the role of financial intermediaries, differentiate between bonds and stocks and show why their prices are inversely related to interest rates, explain how the financial system improves the allocation of saving to productive uses, discuss the three functions of money and how the money supply is measured, analyze how the lending behavior of commercial banks affects the money supply, explain how the central bank controls the money supply and its relation to inflation in the long run.
Chapter 18 - Spending, output, and fiscal policy. After completing this unit, you should be able to: Identify the key assumptions of the basic Keynesian model and explain how this affects firms' production decisions; discuss the determination of planned investment and aggregate consumption spending and how these concepts are used to develop a model of planned aggregate expenditure; analyze how an economy reaches short-run equilibrium in the basic Keynesian model, using both numbers and graphs,…