Benefit sharing

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  • Downloading is the most important thing when you are using the Internet. It is the simple truth that everyone who has experienced in it knows. In Vietnam, there are over 50,000,000 Gigabytes which were downloaded from the Internet to computer each month [1]. At the early days of Internet, computer scientists have focused on creating a new technology to help people to share data with the best benefit and the highest speed. Nowadays, there are two technologies which are the most popular in the world. They are Direct Protocol and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Protocol.

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  • New technologies have led to revisiting of the individual-collective relation in public health …and to questions of their impact on health inequalities The upholding of ‘choice’ coincides with new forms of stratification No consistency in argument Examples: nutrigenetics, obesity and functional foods

    ppt35p nhocbuonthich 18-06-2012 41 11   Download

  • Since the 1980s many funds charge 12b-1 fees, which are used to pay for marketing and distribution costs and are included in the fund's expense ratio. Many funds offer multiple share classes (such as A, B, or C classes) with different combinations of loads and 12b-1 fees. To approximate the total cost of mutual fund shares, we aggregate all the costs incurred by fund shareholders using the now standard total ownership cost (TOC) measure introduced by Sirri and Tufano (1998).

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  • The view of investor as customer also receives some weight from the fact that investors can redeem their mutual fund shares at net asset value at any time. This feature makes investing in a mutual fund unlike owning stock in a traditional company or a closed-end investment company, where the price at which an investor can liquidate reflects the market’s perception of the firm’s management. In that case, when management is revealed to have taken a “bad” action, current investors are damaged because they can resell their shares only at a much lower price.

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  • Health insurers play a unique role as both sellers of insurance and buyers of health care services. These companies use their power as buyers against the smaller medical providers while cooperating with larger providers to increase profits for both.22,23 With only a handful of large insurers, physician practices often have no choice but to accept the prices offered without bargaining effectively. Larger providers, such as academic medical centers, can use their size and stature to negotiate rates.

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  • On the other hand, scholars have argued that adopting environmental and social policies can destroy shareholder wealth (e.g., Friedman 1970; Clotfelter 1985; Navarro 1988; Galaskiewicz 1997). In its simplest form the argument goes that sustainability may be just another type of agency cost where managers receive private benefits from embedding environmental and social policies in the company, but doing so has negative financial implications (Baloti and Hanks 1999; Brown, Helland, and Smith 2006).

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  • U.S. government.This designation, which is the highest level of backing given on a U.S. government security,means that the government pledges to use its full taxing and borrowing authority, as well as revenue from nontax sources, to pay the interest and repay the face amount of the security. Nonetheless, the market prices of these securities are not guaranteed and will fluctuate daily—just like the prices of any other bonds. U.S. government backing of Treasury and agency securities applies only to the underlying securities and does not prevent share-price fluctuations.

    pdf66p enter1cai 16-01-2013 22 4   Download

  • As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee- based fi nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay- ments etc.).

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  • One of the key features that enables the Greenplum Database to scale linearly and achieve such high performance is its ability to utilize the full local disk I/O bandwidth of each system. Typical configurations can achieve from 1 to more than 2.5 gigabytes per second sustained I/O bandwidth per machine. This rate is entirely scalable, and overall I/O bandwidth can be increased linearly by simply adding nodes without any concerns of saturating a SAN/shared-storage backplane.

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  • Swidden cultivation was a major activity for local livelihoods until 1992–1993, when most of the households were resettled as part of the government’s fixed cultivation program. Called ‘327 Program’ (1992–1997), it was the first effort of the GoV to develop industrial plantations and to decentralize control over and reallocate benefit-sharing of forest resources in Vietnam (Barney 2005), in line with the ‘Doi Moi’ economic reform (which, with six major economic changes, helped Vietnam come out of the economic crisis in 1986).

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  • Because car sharing vehicles serve local residents, and because of the documented beneficial effects of car sharing on vehicle ownership and usage, the proposed text amendment would allow car share vehicles to park in certain accessory residential parking facilities. In medium and higher density residential districts (R5 – R10 districts, except R5A districts), where the potential for car sharing is greater, car share vehicles would be allowed to park in a maximum of 5 spaces or 20% of the total number of spaces, whichever is greater.

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  • We show experiments for on-line convergence to a global partitioning solution for sharing the database buffer pool, storage cache, and disk bandwidth in dif- ferent application configurations. We compare our ap- proach to two baseline approaches, which optimize ei- ther the memory partitioning, or the disk partitioning, as well as combinations of these approaches without global coordination. We show that for most application con- figurations, our computed model effectively prunes most of the search space, even without any additional tuning through experimental sampling.

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  • State and local governments finance public services primarily through taxes. Nationally, the two biggest taxes are the property and sales tax, which generate more than two- thirds of all state and local tax revenue. Because states rely most on sales and property taxes, and because these taxes place higher effective rates on low- and middle-income households (who spend a greater share of their incomes on housing and purchasing necessities than the wealthy), state and local tax systems are regressive. In Rhode Island, the lowest twenty percent of households pay 11.

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  • In recent years there has been growing attention to the potential economic benefits of improvements in population health. This is far from new: historically, one of the origins of the public health movement lies in the awareness that the prosperity of nations is partly dependent on the health of their populations.

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  • The principles of informed choice and shared decision-making have largely been developed from theoretical and conceptual models. The competencies listed for shared decision-making consist of a number of different skills, and patients have shown that they may value different aspects of shared decision-making.

    pdf31p quaivatdo 15-11-2012 26 2   Download

  • his report assesses the effects of using and sharing installations and environment geospatial data assets within and across the business, warfighting, and intelligence mission areas of the Department of Defense (DoD) Global Information Grid. The authors found that the assets have diverse beneficial effects and support a

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  • In this chapter, we will address the following questions: How are networks used to solve business problems? What are the primary components of a network? Why are network standards necessary? How does the Internet work? What are the benefits of wireless networks? What telecommunications problems might you encounter in a global setting?

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  • If the holder of an option decides to exercise his right to buy (in the case of a call) or to sell (in the case of a put) the underlying shares of stock, the holder must direct his broker to submit an exercise notice to OCC. ln order to ensure that an option is exercised on a particular day, the holder must notify his broker before the broker's cutoff time for accepting exercise instructions on that day. Different firms may have different cutoff times for accepting exercise instructions from customers, and those cutoff times may be different for different classes of options....

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  • The dramatic changes in stock values and in house values over the last decade have renewed policy and academic interest in the effects of household wealth on consumption expenditure. It is sometimes argued that the effect of changes in housing wealth is larger than the effect of changes in stock market wealth. 1 The reasoning is two-fold: firstly, more people own houses than shares and secondly, financial innovation has made it easier to access capital gains from housing wealth.

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  • When health care workers interact with patients, they should address the patient by name, and respect the patient’s time by attending to the patient as soon as possible. When a patient’s ideas are different from the health care worker’s, the health care worker should accept that the patient has different views, and then make sure the patient knows the health care worker’s point of view about TB. Health care workers can make it clear that even if they do not share the patient’s views, they respect them. Knowing and respecting the patient’s views will improve...

    pdf396p chiecxedien 02-01-2013 12 1   Download

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