Downloading is the most important thing when you are using the Internet. It is the simple truth that everyone who has experienced in it knows. In Vietnam, there are over 50,000,000 Gigabytes which were downloaded from the Internet to computer each month . At the early days of Internet, computer scientists have focused on creating a new technology to help people to share data with the best benefit and the highest speed. Nowadays, there are two technologies which are the most popular in the world. They are Direct Protocol and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Protocol.
New technologies have led to revisiting of the individual-collective relation in public health
…and to questions of their impact on health inequalities
The upholding of ‘choice’ coincides with new forms of stratification
No consistency in argument
Examples: nutrigenetics, obesity and functional foods
Since the 1980s many funds charge 12b-1 fees, which are used to pay for marketing and
distribution costs and are included in the fund's expense ratio. Many funds offer multiple share
classes (such as A, B, or C classes) with different combinations of loads and 12b-1 fees. To
approximate the total cost of mutual fund shares, we aggregate all the costs incurred by fund
shareholders using the now standard total ownership cost (TOC) measure introduced by Sirri
and Tufano (1998).
The view of investor as customer also receives
some weight from the fact that investors can redeem
their mutual fund shares at net asset value at any
time. This feature makes investing in a mutual fund
unlike owning stock in a traditional company or a
closed-end investment company, where the price at
which an investor can liquidate reflects the market’s
perception of the firm’s management. In that case,
when management is revealed to have taken a “bad”
action, current investors are damaged because they
can resell their shares only at a much lower price.
Health insurers play a unique role as both sellers
of insurance and buyers of health care services.
These companies use their power as buyers
against the smaller medical providers while
cooperating with larger providers to increase
profits for both.22,23 With only a handful of
large insurers, physician practices often have no
choice but to accept the prices offered without
bargaining effectively. Larger providers, such
as academic medical centers, can use their size
and stature to negotiate rates.
On the other hand, scholars have argued that adopting environmental and social policies can
destroy shareholder wealth (e.g., Friedman 1970; Clotfelter 1985; Navarro 1988; Galaskiewicz 1997). In
its simplest form the argument goes that sustainability may be just another type of agency cost where
managers receive private benefits from embedding environmental and social policies in the company, but
doing so has negative financial implications (Baloti and Hanks 1999; Brown, Helland, and Smith 2006).
U.S. government.This designation, which is the highest level
of backing given on a U.S. government security,means that the
government pledges to use its full taxing and borrowing authority,
as well as revenue from nontax sources, to pay the interest and
repay the face amount of the security. Nonetheless, the market
prices of these securities are not guaranteed and will fluctuate
daily—just like the prices of any other bonds. U.S. government
backing of Treasury and agency securities applies only to the
underlying securities and does not prevent share-price fluctuations.
As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become
increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic
value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader
view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also
need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee-
based ﬁ nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay-
One of the key features that enables the Greenplum Database to scale linearly and achieve such high performance is its
ability to utilize the full local disk I/O bandwidth of each system. Typical configurations can achieve from 1 to more than
2.5 gigabytes per second sustained I/O bandwidth per machine. This rate is entirely scalable, and overall I/O bandwidth
can be increased linearly by simply adding nodes without any concerns of saturating a SAN/shared-storage backplane.
Swidden cultivation was a major activity for local livelihoods until 1992–1993,
when most of the households were resettled as part of the government’s fixed
cultivation program. Called ‘327 Program’ (1992–1997), it was the first effort
of the GoV to develop industrial plantations and to decentralize control over and
reallocate benefit-sharing of forest resources in Vietnam (Barney 2005), in line
with the ‘Doi Moi’ economic reform (which, with six major economic changes,
helped Vietnam come out of the economic crisis in 1986).
Because car sharing vehicles serve local residents, and because of the documented beneficial
effects of car sharing on vehicle ownership and usage, the proposed text amendment would allow
car share vehicles to park in certain accessory residential parking facilities. In medium and
higher density residential districts (R5 – R10 districts, except R5A districts), where the potential
for car sharing is greater, car share vehicles would be allowed to park in a maximum of 5 spaces
or 20% of the total number of spaces, whichever is greater.
We show experiments for on-line convergence to a
global partitioning solution for sharing the database
buffer pool, storage cache, and disk bandwidth in dif-
ferent application conﬁgurations. We compare our ap-
proach to two baseline approaches, which optimize ei-
ther the memory partitioning, or the disk partitioning, as
well as combinations of these approaches without global
coordination. We show that for most application con-
ﬁgurations, our computed model effectively prunes most
of the search space, even without any additional tuning
through experimental sampling.
State and local governments finance public services primarily through taxes. Nationally,
the two biggest taxes are the property and sales tax, which generate more than two-
thirds of all state and local tax revenue.
Because states rely most on sales and property taxes, and because these taxes place
higher effective rates on low- and middle-income households (who spend a greater
share of their incomes on housing and purchasing necessities than the wealthy), state
and local tax systems are regressive. In Rhode Island, the lowest twenty percent of
households pay 11.
In recent years there has been growing attention to the potential economic benefits of
improvements in population health. This is far from new: historically, one of the
origins of the public health movement lies in the awareness that the prosperity of
nations is partly dependent on the health of their populations.
The principles of informed choice and shared decision-making have largely
been developed from theoretical and conceptual models. The competencies
listed for shared decision-making consist of a number of different skills, and
patients have shown that they may value different aspects of shared
his report assesses the effects of using and sharing installations and environment geospatial data assets within and across the business, warfighting, and intelligence mission areas of the Department of Defense (DoD) Global Information Grid. The authors found that the assets have diverse beneficial effects and support a
If the holder of an option decides to exercise his right to buy (in the case of a call) or
to sell (in the case of a put) the underlying shares of stock, the holder must direct his
broker to submit an exercise notice to OCC. ln order to ensure that an option is
exercised on a particular day, the holder must notify his broker before the broker's
cutoff time for accepting exercise instructions on that day. Different firms may have
different cutoff times for accepting exercise instructions from customers, and those
cutoff times may be different for different classes of options....
The dramatic changes in stock values and in house values over the last decade
have renewed policy and academic interest in the effects of household wealth
on consumption expenditure. It is sometimes argued that the effect of changes
in housing wealth is larger than the effect of changes in stock market wealth.
reasoning is two-fold: ﬁrstly, more people own houses than shares and secondly,
ﬁnancial innovation has made it easier to access capital gains from housing wealth.
When health care workers interact with patients, they should address the patient by
name, and respect the patient’s time by attending to the patient as soon as possible.
When a patient’s ideas are different from the health care worker’s, the health care
worker should accept that the patient has different views, and then make sure the
patient knows the health care worker’s point of view about TB. Health care
workers can make it clear that even if they do not share the patient’s views, they
respect them. Knowing and respecting the patient’s views will improve...
Public expenditure on health is financed mainly through a combination of
contributions and general tax revenue transfers to the health insurance scheme.
There has been increasing reliance on the latter in recent years.
Participation in the health insurance scheme is compulsory for all citizens
living in Hungary, and opting out is not permitted. Based on the current legal
framework, coverage should theoretically be 100%, but the health insurance
status of approximately 4% of the population is unclear. The benefits package
is comprehensive but not exhaustive.