Benign diseases

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  • Benign disease o1 the cervix and body of the uterus is extremely common. Cervical ectropion and fibroids are often present without symptoms, but are also common problems encountered in almost every gynaecological outpatient clinic. Adenomyosis and.1 Endometriosis, other important benign conditions, are considered in Chapter 10.

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  • Benign Disease Symptoms Benign proliferative disease may produce hesitancy, intermittent voiding, a diminished stream, incomplete emptying, and postvoid leakage. The severity of these symptoms can be quantitated with the self-administered American Urological Association Symptom Index (Table 91-2), although the degree of symptoms does not always relate to gland size. Resistance to urine flow reduces bladder compliance, leading to nocturia, urgency, and, ultimately, urinary retention.

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  • A variety of conditions may occur in the breast. Starting from congenital abnormalities, conditions due to hormonal changes throughout reproductive life and physiological differences due to pregnancy and lactation are known.

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  • Benign breast disease comprises a wide range of conditions which worry patients, which vex physicians, which are vastly more common than breast cancer, and yet which have to date received relatively little attention in the medical literature. It is therefore a particular pleasure for me to introduce the third edition of Hughes, Mansel & Webster’s Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast, a unique and classic work which fully succeeds in addressing this imbalance and builds on the substantial and well-deserved success of the first (1989) and second (2000) editions.

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  • Diagnosis and Treatment by Clinical State The disease continuum—from the appearance of a preneoplastic and invasive lesion localized to the prostate, to a metastatic lesion that results in symptoms and, ultimately, mortality from prostate cancer—can span decades. Management at all points is centered on competing risks that are defined by considering the disease as a series of clinical states (Fig. 91-1).

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  • Methods of Measuring Health Benefits It is not practical to perform all possible screening procedures. For example, screening for laryngeal cancer in smokers is not currently recommended. It is necessary to examine the strength of evidence in favor of screening measures relative to the cost and risk of false-positive tests.

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  • TRUS is the imaging technique most frequently used to assess the primary tumor, but its chief use is directing prostate biopsies, not staging. No TRUS finding consistently indicates cancer with certainty. CT lacks sensitivity and specificity to detect extraprostatic extension and is inferior to MRI in visualization of lymph nodes. In general, MRI performed with an endorectal coil is superior to CT to detect cancer in the prostate and to assess local disease extent.

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  • Dermatologic Diseases See Tables 32-1, 32-2, and 32-3 and Chaps. 52, 53, 54, 55, and 56.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 91. Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate: Introduction Benign and malignant changes in the prostate increase with age. Autopsies of men in the eighth decade of life show hyperplastic changes in 90% and malignant changes in 70% of individuals. The high prevalence of these diseases among the elderly, who often have competing causes of morbidity and mortality, mandates a risk-adapted approach to diagnosis and treatment. This can be achieved by considering these diseases as a series of states.

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  • The PSA criteria used to recommend a diagnostic prostate biopsy have evolved over time. The goal is to increase the sensitivity of the test for younger men more likely to die of the disease and to reduce the frequency of detecting cancers of low malignant potential in elderly men more likely to die of other causes. Age-specific reference ranges reduce the upper limit of normal for younger men and increase it for older men. Different thresholds alter the sensitivity and specificity of detection. The threshold for performance of a biopsy was 4.0 ng/mL, which has been reduced to 2.6...

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  • Metastatic Disease: Castrate Castration-resistant disease can manifest in many ways. For some it is a rise in PSA with no change in radiographs and no new symptoms. In others it is a rising PSA and progression in bone with or without symptoms of disease. Still others will show soft tissue disease with or without osseous metastases, and others have visceral spread. The prognosis, which is highly variable, can be predicted using nomograms designed for the castration-resistant disease state.

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  • These findings along with a freely mobile prostate, normal serum acid phosphatase and normal skeletal radiographs suggested organ-confined disease and provided enough evidence to initiate radical treatment. In 1953, Colby retrospectively reviewed 100 prostatectomy specimens for presumed prostate cancer and of these 42 were performed solely on the basis of an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) (Colby 1953).

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  • Red Lesions Cutaneous lesions that are red in color have a wide variety of etiologies; in an attempt to simplify their identification, they will be subdivided into papules, papules/plaques, and subcutaneous nodules. Common red papules include arthropod bites and cherry hemangiomas; the latter are small, bright-red, domeshaped papules that represent benign proliferation of capillaries.

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  • For patients with a rising PSA after radiation therapy, salvage prostatectomy can be considered if the disease was "curable" at the outset, if persistent disease has been documented by a biopsy of the prostate, and if no metastatic disease is seen on imaging studies. Unfortunately, case selection is poorly defined in most series, and morbidities are significant. As currently performed, virtually all patients are impotent after salvage radical prostatectomy, and ~45% have either total urinary incontinence or stress incontinence.

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  • Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis Chronic IMF (other designations include agnogenic myeloid metaplasia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia) is a clonal disorder of a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell of unknown etiology characterized by marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and splenomegaly. Chronic IMF is the least common chronic myeloproliferative disorder, and establishing this diagnosis in the absence of a specific clonal marker is difficult because myelofibrosis and splenomegaly are also features of both PV and CML.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Shaw’s textbook of gynaecology" presents the following contents: Gestational trophoblastic diseases, disorders of menstruation-Amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, genital prolapse, diseases of the vulva, diseases of the vagina, benign diseases of the uterus, endometriosis and adenomyosis, disorders of the ovary, acute and chronic pelvic pain,... and other content.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Color atlas of oral diseases" presents the following contents: Autoimmune diseases, skin diseases, precancerous lesions, precancerous conditions, malignant neoplasms, endocrine diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous, other salivary gland disorders, benign tumors,...

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  • The practicing radiologist is continually challenged to update his/her competencies so as to deliver state-of-the-art radiological care. Nowhere is this truer than in the rapidly evolving world of magnetic resonance imaging, where innovations in both technology and diagnostic pharmaceuticals have dramatically altered the landscape of practice.

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  • We are very pleased to provide you with this book dealing with abdominal surgery. The chapters in this book are written by surgeons, radiologists, anesthesiologists and oncologists from different hospitals in Tunisia, Turkey, Denmark, Spain and Italy. Together with basic surgical principles, the unique local experiences and perspectives are presented.

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  • If a patient has previously undergone a hysterectomy, the cervix is usually no longer present and only a vaginal cuff remains. If the pathology was benign, then the patient no longer requires Pap smears (11). However, if the hysterectomy was performed for cervical cancer or dysplasia, cervical cancer screening on the vaginal cuff should continue since remnants of cervical tissue may be present. These women are also at higher risk for vaginal in- traepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer.

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