Benign disorders

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  • Benign breast disease comprises a wide range of conditions which worry patients, which vex physicians, which are vastly more common than breast cancer, and yet which have to date received relatively little attention in the medical literature. It is therefore a particular pleasure for me to introduce the third edition of Hughes, Mansel & Webster’s Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast, a unique and classic work which fully succeeds in addressing this imbalance and builds on the substantial and well-deserved success of the first (1989) and second (2000) editions.

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  • Pelger-Hüet anomaly. In this benign disorder, the majority of granulocytes are bilobed. The nucleus frequently has a spectacle-like, or "pince-nez," configuration. In severe acute bacterial infection, prominent neutrophil cytoplasmic granules, called toxic granulations, are occasionally seen. Toxic granulations are immature or abnormally staining azurophil granules. Cytoplasmic inclusions, also called Döhle bodies (Fig. 61-3), can be seen during infection and are fragments of ribosome-rich endoplasmic reticulum.

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  • Có rất nhiều nguyên nhân, một số chưa rõ, tuỳ theo triệu chứng. Một số nguyên nhân thường gặp như sau: 1/ Viêm thần kinh sọ nảo số 8, chi nhánh Tiền Đình (vestibular neuronnitis). Đây là 1 tình trạng lành tính (benign disorder), thường hay bị tái phát, thường do siêu vi trùng (virus), thường ở nguới trẻ tuổi hoặc trung niên.

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  • These findings along with a freely mobile prostate, normal serum acid phosphatase and normal skeletal radiographs suggested organ-confined disease and provided enough evidence to initiate radical treatment. In 1953, Colby retrospectively reviewed 100 prostatectomy specimens for presumed prostate cancer and of these 42 were performed solely on the basis of an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) (Colby 1953).

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  • Melanoma and Other Tumors Melanoma is the most common primary tumor of the eye (Fig. 29-18). It causes photopsia, an enlarging scotoma, and loss of vision. A small melanoma is often difficult to differentiate from a benign choroidal nevus. Serial examinations are required to document a malignant pattern of growth. Treatment of melanoma is controversial. Options include enucleation, local resection, and irradiation. Metastatic tumors to the eye outnumber primary tumors. Breast and lung carcinoma have a special propensity to spread to the choroid or iris.

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  • Pneumoperitoneum is rare following blunt abdominal injury but can indicate bowel perforation. Soft-tissue windows are used at first, they can detect large amounts of Pneumoperitoneum who appear black (Figure 3.). Smaller collections are attempted on lung windows, followed by bone windows. When detected on CT, it is not specific for bowel injury because air tracking from thoracic injuries can collect in the abdomen. Following penetrating abdominal injury, Pneumoperitoneum detected on CT is likely to indicate bowel perforation and prompts laparotomy in most cases. ...

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  • The term acid-peptic disorders encompasses a variety of relatively specific medical conditions in which injury by gastric acid (and activated pepsin) is thought to play an important role. These disorders include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), benign "peptic" ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, ulcers secondary to the use of conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and ulcers due to the rare Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

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  • In addition to local tissue invasion and metastasis, neoplastic cells can produce a variety of peptides that that can stimulate hormonal, hematologic, dermatologic, or neurologic responses. Paraneoplastic syndromes refer to the disorders that accompany benign or malignant tumors but are not directly related to mass effects or invasion.

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  • Viruses are obligate parasites which depend on living cells to multiply. Their ability to deliver stable RNA and DNA into cells has determined their use in gene therapy. In 1983 Mann et al. developed one of the first retroviral gene therapy vectors for delivery in vitro (Mann, Mulligan et al. 1983). This development was followed by many successfully gene therapy trials of retroviruses (Anderson, Blaese et al. 1990; Levine and Friedmann 1991; Blaese, Culver et al. 1993). Now, retrovirual vectors are implemented in nearly 22.2% of clinical trials (http://www.wiley.

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  • Earlier this year, the Texas Health and Human Services Commission reported to its state legislature that WHP has been effective in reducing unplanned births and has saved the state millions of dollars due to the reduction in Medicaid costs associated with those births. It estimated that over 8,000 births were averted in 2011, yielding $54 million in net savings (federal plus state), including more than $23 million in state savings.

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  • There are no recent statistics determining the size and scope of the inbound incentive travel market. The last estimates were provided in a report commissioned by the British Tourist Authority and partners in 1996, which calculated the value of inbound and domestic incentive travel (excluding air travel) to be in the region of £165 million per year. The fact that hotels do not differentiate between conference and incentive travel group bookings, makes it difficult to track occupancy levels.

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  • There can be many different variations in how car-sharing is organized. This depends in part on who is in charge or bears responsibility (a cooperative, a private firm, a municipal government, or whatever). In addition, car-sharing organizations can be classified as being either open or closed. A closed car-sharing organization has a set of vehicles used by a limited group of persons, such as the employees of a firm or of a municipal authority. An open car- sharing organization, in contrast, is one that in principle anyone can belong to.

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  • Municipal water accounts for less than a tenth of human water use, but clean drinking water is a critical need. Today, half of the world’s population live in towns and cities and one‐third of this urban population live without clean drinking water. These billion have‐nots are unevenly distributed across the globe: 700 million city dwellers in Asia, 150 million in Africa, and 120 million in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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  • Now that we’ve reviewed the building blocks for money market funds, it’s time to apply what you’ve learned. Imagine you’ve been given the task of managing a large multibillion-dollar money market fund. What would you do? Let’s give it a try.We’ll assume that the fund is a taxable general purpose money market mutual fund. Your responsibility to investors means that you will to do everything you can to maintain the stable $1.00 NAV and to assure liquidity any time a shareholder wants to withdraw cash—while providing a competitive yield.

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  • In Mozambique, Pathfinder is going beyond traditional maternal and child health to ensure the survival of children into adulthood. In addition to their traditional role distributing family planning information and products, CHWs have begun distributing water-purification solution and insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria prevention to pregnant women and mothers of children under five. They are promoting exclusive breast-feeding to the age of six-months, iron and folate supplements for pregnant women, growth monitoring, deworming, and proper nutrition.

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  • The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) is the responsible authority under the state Water Pollution Control Act for an effective water quality compliance program for dairies. Over the last 7 years, dairies have become well informed about good management practices to protect the state’s surface and ground water and to manage their operations to meet state and federal livestock water quality rules. The WSDA Livestock Nutrient Management Program’s goal is to educate farmers about nutrient management and protecting waters of the state.

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  • Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis Chronic IMF (other designations include agnogenic myeloid metaplasia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia) is a clonal disorder of a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell of unknown etiology characterized by marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and splenomegaly. Chronic IMF is the least common chronic myeloproliferative disorder, and establishing this diagnosis in the absence of a specific clonal marker is difficult because myelofibrosis and splenomegaly are also features of both PV and CML.

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  • The standard requires the land be able to support a range of activities similar to its previous use before oil sands development. There are 420 square kilometers (162 square miles) of land that has been disturbed by oil sands activity—which is just over half of the area of the City of Edmonton, or one third the area of the City of Los Angeles. As of March 2008, approximately 65 square kilometers (25 square miles) are undergoing active reclamation. Industry must submit reclamation plans for approval to the Alberta government, which then issues a final certificate once work...

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  • “Nokia is at a critical juncture, where significant change is necessary and inevitable in our journey forward,” said Stephen Elop, Nokia President and CEO. “Today, we are accelerating that change through a new path, aimed at regaining our smartphone leadership, reinforcing our mobile device platform and realizing our investments in the future.” Nokia plans to form a strategic partnership with Microsoft to build a global mobile ecosystem based on highly complementary assets.

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  • We analyze the susceptibility of the Internet to random faults, malicious attacks, and mixtures of faults and attacks.We analyze actual Internet data, as well as simulated data created with network models. The network models generalize previous research, and allow generation of graphs ranging from uniform to preferential, and from static to dynamic.We introduce new metrics for analyzing the connectivity and performance of networks which improve upon metrics used in earlier research.

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