Benthic communities

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  • CHAPTER THIRTEEN Evolution of the Deep-Water Benthic Community Megascopic life evolved in the Archean with the buildup of stromatolitic mounds in shallow-water environments. By the Proterozoic, stromatolites had already extended down to well below fair-weather wave base.

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  • CHAPTER ONE Introduction arguably ranks as the single most important episode in the development of Earth’s marine biota. Diverse benthic communities with complex tiering, trophic webs, and niche partitioning, together with an elaborate pelagic realm.

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  • The Baltic Sea is one of the most investigated water bodies in the world. For decades, the many highly industrialised nations around the Baltic have financed basic and applied investigations, as well as the building and development of research stations and vessels. After World War II, research in the Baltic Proper was intensified and investigations became much more international. The main goals of such investigations were analysis of the eutrophication and pollution of the Baltic Sea, and development of mitigating strategies (e.g. the HELCOM-Program).

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  • THE CAMBRIAN RADIATION, which commenced around 550 million years ago, arguably ranks as the single most important episode in the development of Earth’s marine biota. Diverse benthic communities with complex tiering, trophic webs, and niche partitioning, together with an elaborate pelagic realm, were established soon after the beginning of the Cambrian period. This key event in the history of life changed the marine biosphere and its associated sediments forever.

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  • Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of benthic algal ecology.

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  • The world ocean has somewhere between 10 000 and 100 000 seamounts more than 1 km tall and as many as 1 000 000 features over 100 m tall. These are some of the least understood habitats on the planet. Large seamounts, particularly those close to or within the photic zone, support and attract rich biotic communities and are important for the status of marine food webs and biodiversity. Intensive boom-and-bust fi sheries have depleted fi sh populations and damaged or destroyed associated benthic communities.

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  • UNIT 2 : BIOMES AND ECOSYSTEMS Influenced by latitude, elevation, and associated moisture and temperature regimes, terrestrial biomes vary geographically from the tropics through the arctic and include various types of forest, grassland, shrub land, and desert. These biomes also include their associated freshwater communities: streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Marine environments, also considered biomes by some ecologists, comprise the open ocean, littoral (shallow water) regions, benthic (bottom) regions, rocky shores, sandy shores, estuaries, and associated tidal marshes.

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  • Carmago et al. (1992) found that the rivers nearer industrial discharge point have adverse impact to the environment as well as to macrobenthic communities. Toxic contaminants from surface runoff, sewage discharges and industrial discharge have caused negative impacts towards the freshwater macrobenthic communities. The presence of substance chemical such as ammonia, chlorine, cyanide, metals, PCBs, pesticides and phenols would caused a decline pattern on the number of species and changes in the species composition.

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