Ten years ago when I wrote the foreword to the first edition of this book, the
concept of women’s health was changing at a rapid pace. The focus was just
shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded
perception that women’s health encompasses biological, familial, cultural, economic,
emotional, psychological, and behavioral elements of each woman and her
sociopolitical environment, beyond just the reproductive organs and across her
This book has emerged from our experience in the education of allied health
professionals (AHPs), particularly student occupational therapists. As tutors we
were aware that students, especially as they neared qualification, struggled to
find a suitable textbook examining the key areas that contextualised their study
of profession-specific skills.
"This book is a timely collection of reviews of fundamental processes in the compartments and chemical components of the cerebral micro-environments...its contents prove rewarding reading for the neuroclinician." - Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery "The book targets researchers, graduate students, and educators who face constant challenges on how to modify the external environment of a specific neuron in order to obtain specific behavioral results. The author is a credible authority on the subject but I think the scope of the book has an audience beyond that proposed by the author.
The chapters to follow have been written as a textbook in health care management
and policy. The book may serve as an introduction to problems and issues in U.S.
health care for people entering related professional fi elds. It is also intended for use by
people already experienced in a particular aspect of management or policy for attaining
perspective on the system as a whole. The book will have value far beyond the
classroom. Every day, large numbers of Americans become newly interested in health
care management and policy for a variety of reasons.
The remarkable political changes that have
taken place within the European Region in
the last five years have greatly enlarged the
potential for international collaboration. The
First European Conference on Environment
and Health was held in Frankfurt in December
1989, when these dramatic changes
were at their height. Ministers from 29 countries,
and the European Commission, approved
a Charter that set out the principles,
strategy and priorities for achieving an effective
approach to the many areas in which environmental
conditions may significantly affect
Our first preface in 1993 emphasized that this book was A, not, The Sociology of
Mental Health and Illness. Today, more than ever, it is quite a risk to write ‘The
Sociology’ of anything. Moreover, as the wide-ranging references listed at the
end of the book indicate, we continue to draw our material from sociology but
also many other sources, including psychology and psychiatry. Sociological
analyses of our topic are not offered only by sociologists.
Since their launch in 1984, the Framework Programmes have played a lead role in
multidisciplinary research and cooperative activities in Europe and beyond. FP7
continues that task, and is both larger and
more comprehensive than earlier Framework
Programmes. Running from 2007 to 2013, the
programme has a budget of 53.2 billion euros
over its seven-year lifespan, the largest
funding allocation yet for such programmes.
Many people have contributed to the successful completion of this
book. Jenny Routledge initiated the cross-school Women’s Health
Initiative at the University of East Anglia, whose members undertook
the stimulating discussions, activities and conferences which led to
most of the chapters herein. Robbie Meehan provided excellent
support for those activities, so that they were always well run and
recorded; her co-ordination was essential in getting the book underway.
With increasing recognition of the environmental impact of food and drink, future food policy and
dietary advice need to go beyond the traditional focus on nutrient recommendations for health to
include wider issues of sustainability. The task should not be underestimated, not least because the
issue of sustainability is complex with multiple dimensions, including environmental, economic and
social aspects. Current dietary advice is based on nutrient recommendations for health.
suggested that an undue emphasis on the individual self reflects cultural bias and a limited world
view (Christopher and Hickinbottom 2008).
The wide range of benefits associated with mental health demonstrates the relevance of wellbeing to
sectors beyond health, notably those concerned with the policy challenges presented by education,
social cohesion, demographic change, sustainable economic development and environmental
protection across the WHO European Region.
Within a social justice model, the G&J Program uses a reproductive justice framework, as
conceptualized by SisterSong and Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice.
justice extends beyond health services and information (reproductive health model) and
fundamental liberties (reproductive rights model), to the economic, social, environmental, and
political conditions that affect the health and lives of women and their families and communities.
Scarcely one half of the children of our country continue in school much beyond the fifth grade. It is
important, therefore, that so far as possible the knowledge which has most to do with human welfare should
be presented in the early years of school life.
Fisher, Metchnikoff, Sedgwick, and others have shown that the health of a people influences the prosperity
and happiness of a nation more than any other one thing. The highest patriotism is therefore the conservation
The use of language is often anchored in history, tradition, assumptions,
and values.Words communicate ideas that go beyond the terms and phrases
themselves. But this is by no means static; there are trends and periodic
shifts that impact how we think and understand the world around us and
help to shape the work that we do. Accordingly, a few comments about
language must precede the text that follows.
When I set out to write about the diagnostic process, I envisioned a text
that could both complement classroom teaching and provide a guide for independent
study. That was before I undertook a completely unscientific
survey of practicing health care professionals, to learn how they had
learned about mental health diagnosis. What I found surprised me.
For most of the practitioners I surveyed, training in the refined art of
diagnosis was—well, no training at all.
High medicines prices, low affordability and poor availability are key impediments to
access to treatment in many low- and middle-income countries (1–9). Certainly, in those
countries where the majority of the population still buys its medicines through out-of-pocket
payments, the high cost of medicines (relative to the household budget) means that an illness
in the family exposes that family to the risk of catastrophic expenditure. Too often the choice
is made to go without.
The professional practice of counseling and mental health has become
overly complex and litigious. Public outcry over recent corporate and government
scandals has led to a proliferation of litigation and has fueled calls
for increased ethics training and accountability for management professionals.
Not surprisingly, scrutiny of ethical practice has extended beyond
business and government to all professional sectors, including the mental
While important progress on the MDGs has been made, it has been uneven between and within countries. Gender
disparities remain manifested in many sectors with progress differing by region and country. The growing number and
diversity of actors, approaches and flows in development cooperation in recent years have also significantly impacted
progress on the MDGs and other IADGs.
It is beyond the scope of this chapter to review in detail the different methods of detection,
two published papers by Paneleaukou et al (2009), and Fehm et al (2005) have extensively
reviewed the pros and cons of the different detection methods. In summary, PCR methods
have a high rate of false positive results, density gradient centrifugation may be associated
with increased lost of circulating cells whereas immunomagnetic separation may not
recognize tumor cells which do not express EpCAM and does not differentiate between
malignant and benign prostate cells.
Part memoir, nutritional primer, and political manifesto, this controversial examination exposes the destructive history of agriculture—causing the devastation of prairies and forests, driving countless species extinct, altering the climate, and destroying the topsoil—and asserts that, in order to save the planet, food must come from within living communities. In order for this to happen, the argument champions eating locally and sustainably and encourages those with the resources to grow their own food.
More than an accidental injury, more than a serious illness, more than a
natural disaster, the trauma of crime victimization goes beyond physical and
psychological injury: It robs us of the very faith we have in the human world.
Although eclipsed in recent headlines by terrorism, the common everyday
violations of civilized behavior that our own citizens continue to perpetrate
on one another are no less wrenching.