Binary message

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  • This book provides information on the messaging API which is included in the JSR 120 Wireless Messaging API (WMA) specification. It also describes Sun Microsystem’s reference implementation (RI) of the API. Who Should Use This Book This book is intended primarily for those individuals and companies who want to implement WMA, or to port the WMA RI to a new platform. Before You Read This Book This book assumes that you have experience programming in the C and Java™ languages, and that you have experience with the platforms to which you are porting the RI.

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  • IN 1995, WHEN I WAS IN MY SECOND YEAR IN COLLEGE, I was introduced to UNIX network programming. In C, you could create sockets to open TCP connections to servers and code the servers that accepted these connections. I remember the excitement I felt the fi rst time I created a TCP server: I could accept connections and receive and send messages on them. If I wanted my server to accept many concurrent connections, the common solution was to use threads, and soon I had created my fi rst multi-threaded TCP server.

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  • In the late 1940’s Claude Shannon was developing information theory and coding as a mathematical model for communication. At the same time, Richard Hamming, a colleague of Shannon’s at Bell Laboratories, found a need for error correction in his work on computers. Parity checking was already being used to detect errors in the calculations of the relay-based computers of the day, and Hamming realized that a more sophisticated pattern of parity checking allowed the correction of single errors along with the detection of double errors.

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  • • Analog voice data must be translated into a series of binary digits before they can be transmitted in digital transmission system. One means of doing this is called pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). • The process of converting analog signal to digital is also known as A_to_D conversion or A/D conversion. The circuit does the conversion known as A/D converter. In analog modulation (continuous wave modulation), some parameter of a sinusoidal carrier wave is varied continuously in accordance with the message signal. ...

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  • Spectrum of an FSK Signal : FSK involves frequency shifting a carrier between known fixed frequencies to convey digital data. Normally, FSK modulation is achieved using just two frequencies to represent binary data. For example, a frequency of 2000 Hz may represent a binary 1 (mark) and 1000 Hz a binary 0 (space). The energy of the signal alternates between the mark and space frequencies to convey the digital message. FSK describes the modulation of a carrier (or two carriers) by using a different frequency for a 1 or 0. The resultant modulated signal may be regarded as the sum...

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  • Stream ciphers are an important class of encryption algorithms. They encrypt individual characters (usually binary digits) of a plaintext message one at a time, using an encryption transformation which varies with time. By contrast, block ciphers (Chapter 7) tend to simultaneously encrypt groups of characters of a plaintext message using a fixed encryption transformation. Stream ciphers are generally faster than block ciphers in hardware, and have less complex hardware circuitry. They are also more appropriate, and in some cases mandatory (e.g.

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  • With link correlation information (CPRP) available among neighboring nodes, collective ACKs are achieved in an accumulative manner. The success of a transmis- sion to a node (defined as the coverage probability of a node) is no longer a binary (0/1) estimation, but a prob- ability value between 0 and 1. Using collective ACKs, a sender updates the coverage probability values of neigh- boring receivers whenever (i) it transmits or (ii) over- hears a rebroadcast message.

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  • 202 Chapter 8 Database Access case Types.BIGINT: case Types.INTEGER: case Types.NUMERIC: case Types.SMALLINT: case Types.TINYINT: case Types.DECIMAL: case Types.DOUBLE: case Types.FLOAT: type = "number" break; case Types.BINARY: case Types.BIT: case Types.BOOLEAN: type = "boolean" break; default: type = "string" break; } headers = 10000 ) { break } } Download from Database Access with pureQuery 203 map.put('content', content) if ( rowCntr 1 ) { map.put('message', "Successfully retrieved...

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  • Any message written over a fixed set of symbols can be represented as a binary string (a sequence of 0's and 1's) Binary digits 0 and 1 are called bits To reduce computation overhead, encryption algorithms should only use operations that are easy to implement For a binary string X: The length of X, denoted by |X|, is the number of bits in X If |X| = l, X is an l-bit binary string Let a be a binary bit and k a non-negative integer. Denote by ak a binary string consisting of k copies of a Denote the concatenation of X and Y by XY or...

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