A major challenge in clinical periodontics is to find a reliable molecular marker of
periodontal support loss with high sensitivity, specificity and utility (Buduneli & Kinane
2011). Molecules derived from inflamed host tissue and pathogenic bacteria have the
potential of being used as markers of periodontitis; however, molecular markers of bone
resorption have advantages as they relate to specificity for bone, easy detection, pre-analytic
stability and availability of sensitive and specific assays for detection (Forde et al. 2006).
For the earthquake motion level 1, the elastic limit
the value of a structure is usually adopted seismic activity. For Level 2 earthquake
motion, on the other hand, the limit value that a structure does not collapse or
repair through the seismic activity depends on the importance of
Level 2 earthquake motions are used for verification is based on the records of strong motion
seismograms obtained from the Hyogoken Nanbu earthquake and the other, and seismic
waveform types are assigned according to the ground....
This book pilots the reader into the future. The first three chapters introduce new materials and material processing methods. Then five chapters present innovative new design directions and solutions. The main section of the book contains ten chapters organized around problems and methods of manufacturing and technology, from cutting process optimisation through maintenance and control to the Digital Factory. The last two chapters deal with information and energy, as the foundations of a prospering economy....
Synthetic polymers are essential for modern human life, since they are
used in industrial and agricultural fields. However, most synthetic polymers
that have been developed by using petroleum and coal as raw materials are
not compatible with the environment, since they cannot be included in the
natural recycling system. There are serious contradictions between the
convenience that people require today and compatibility with the natural
environment. It is easy to say that we should use only natural materials in
order to solve the problems coming from man-made materials.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, the impacts of climate chang
on the water cycle are already evident and
projected to increase substantially in the futur
Climate change impacts the quantity and qua
of freshwater resources and the frequency of
extreme events, such as floods and droughts
While climate change is only one of many
drivers increasing pressure on water resource
its impact is projected to be significant and to
accelerate over time. Climate change reinforc
and adds urgency to the case for good water
resources management more generally.
significant percentage of energy that can be used for human needs, before it is allowed to
complete cycle of energy flow (that is to be dissipated to space). Some of it may be
exploitation and use as a solar energy directly, but another way to use natural
photosynthesis to create biomass can be viewed as a form of chemically stored solar energy
In order to evaluate the status of damage caused by the stresses on the plants growing
process before visible damage is noticed, we have followed the evolution of the Chl content
in the plant leaves using the Fr/FFr chlorophyll fluorescence ratio. The absolute emission
signal of leaves can vary from sample to sample due to small differences such as excitation
and sensing angles of the fluorescence, and the roughness and scattering properties of the
leaf surface. Thus, the absolute fluorescence usually varies to a large extent than the
Several of the conference’s participants presented the results of
fMRI studies of participants performing aesthetic appreciation
tasks. As in other areas of neuroscience, however, blobs of signiﬁ-
cant BOLD response tell us little unless one really understands
their relation to the cognitive and affective processes involved in
the speciﬁc task.
Two approaches were selected for the study, both of which were based on an
initial hot water treatment: the “chemical” where bleached pulp is produced for
printing and writing papers by hot water treatment and the following alkaline
peroxide bleaching (Paper II–IV) and the “mechanical” where the unbleached
material from the hot water treatment stage is mechanically refined (Paper II, V)
to produce fibres for packaging grade papers. In the future, the straw fibre could
be considered as a raw material for biocomposites.
Laboratory tables function as student workstations. School classrooms and science laboratories
must provide each student with a workstation. Laboratory tables can accommodate 2–4 student
workstations per table. The purchase of laboratory tables is a major expense for a school districts;
therefore, tables should be well-constructed and maintained to support optimal student performance
in the laboratory.
The Scientific Equipment and Furniture Association (SEFA) has developed a list of performance
properties for laboratory tables work surfaces. These properties are shown in Table 3.