Biochemical mechanisms

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  • In the four years since the first edition of Enzymes was published, I have been delighted to learn of the wide acceptance of the book throughout the biochemical community, and particularly in the pharmaceutical community. During this time a number of colleagues have contacted me to express their views on the value of the text, and importantly to make suggestions for improvements to the content and presentation of some concepts. I have used the first edition as a teaching supplement for a course in which I lecture at the University of Pennsylvania School of...

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  • A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.

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  • Mechanisms of salt tolerance in halophytes: can crop plants resistance to salinity be improved? High concentrations of sodium are toxic to most plant species, making soil salinity a major abiotic stress in plant productivity world wide. Many crop species, which countless people rely for survival, are negatively affected.

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  • To measure mechanical stress in real time, we designed a fluorescence reso-nance energy transfer (FRET) cassette, denoted stFRET, which could be inserted into structural protein hosts. The probe was composed of a green fluorescence protein pair, Cerulean and Venus, linked with a stablea-helix.

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  • Chronic venous disease of the lower limbs is manifested by a range of signs, the most obvious of which are varicose veins and venous ulcers. However, the signs also include edema, venous eczema, hyperpigmentation of skin of the ankle, atrophie blanche (white scar tissue), and lipodermatosclerosis (induration caused by fibrosis of the subcutaneous fat) (Fig. 1). Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that underlie these diverse manifestations, in particular the role of inflammation. This article reviews these advances and places them in a clinical context....

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  • In this chapter, you will be able to understand: Define transition state, understand basic properties of a transition state, understand why enzymes bind the transition state with higher affinity than the substrate, know common enzymatic mechanisms, know types of amino acid residues that function in enzyme active sites, know what types of RXNS that each participates,...

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  • Viscotoxins are cationic proteins, isolated from different mistletoe species, that belong to the group of thionins, a group of basic cysteine-rich peptides of5 kDa. They have been shown to be cytotoxic to different types of cell, including animal, bacterial and fungal. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the cell targets and the mechanism of action of vis-cotoxin isoform A3 (VtA3).

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  • The soil ecosystem provides services such as carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, water purification, provisioning of industrial and pharmaceutical goods, and a mitigating sink for chemical and biological agents. However, the soil is subject to various degradation processes. Its relation with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere makes the interacting processes even more complex. Moreover, as the soilhuman interactions increase, threats, leading to a series of impacts on soil health, become more important....

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  • Widely regarded as a standard work in its field, this book introduces the range of processing techniques that are used in food manufacturing. It explains the principles of each process, the processing equipment used, operating conditions and the effects of processing on micro-organisms that contaminate foods, the biochemical properties of foods and their sensory and nutritional qualities.

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  • Methylation was initially addressed as one of the most primitive mechanisms that organisms utilize to (a) protect genomic DNA and initiate the host resistance mechanism towards foreign DNA insertion and subsequently, (b) control gene expression, (Doerfler & Böhm, 2006). From an evolutionary point of view as well, the catalytic domain in the structure of the methylation enzymes across all organisms has been preserved to perform methyl group addition.

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  • The biotic world is doubtlessly the best known example of what Nobelist Murray Gell-Mann has termed ‘‘complex adaptive systems’’—a name given to those systems possessing the innate capacity to learn and evolve by utilizing acquired information. Those familiar with living systems cannot but marvel at each cell’s ability to grow, to sense, to communicate, to cooperate, to move, to proliferate, to die and, even then, to yield opportunity to succeeding cells.

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  • Effective new treatments of heart disease are based on a refined understanding of cellular function and the heart's response to environmental stresses. Not surprisingly therefore, the field of experimental cardiology has experienced a phase of rapid exponential growth during the last decade. The acquisition of new knowledge has been so fast that textbooks of cardiology or textbooks of cardiovascular physiology are often hard-pressed to keep up with the most important conceptual advances.

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  • The skin plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the living organism while allowing the interaction of the organism with its environment. To fulfill these functions, mechanical stability is as important as flexibility. The mechanical properties of skin are very diverse depending on the anatomical location, and they evolve throughout life from the fetus to old age. Both genetic and acquired skin diseases modify skin biomechanics, as do intrinsic and photoaging.

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  • Aldo-keto reductase 1B1 and 1B3 (AKR1B1 and AKR1B3) are the pri-mary human and mouse prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a) synthases, respectively, which catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of PGH2, a common intermediate of various prostanoids, to form PGF2a. In this study, we found that AKR1B1 and AKR1B3, but not AKR1B7 and AKR1C3, also catalyzed the isomerization of PGH2 to PGD2 in the absence of NADPH or NADP + .

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  • Catharanthus roseussynthesizes a wide range of valuable monoterpene indole alkaloids, some of which have recently been recognized as func-tioning in plant defence mechanisms. More specifically, in aerial organ epidermal cells, vacuole-accumulated strictosidine displays a dual fate, being either the precursor of all monoterpene indole alkaloids after export from the vacuole...

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  • While communications and network security are ongoing concerns, current technology is also making impressive strides in bioinformatics, which concentrates on untangling the complex relationships and connections that enable viruses and other diseases to attack the human body. California-based Ingenuity’s Variant Analysis and IPA (Ingenuity Pathways Analysis) Web-based software identifies and analyses individually modelled relationships between proteins, genes, complexes, cells, tissues, metabolites, drugs, and diseases.

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  • Improvements in the efficiency of large-scale DNA sequencing are resulting in rapid increases in the number of protein sequences that lack genetic or biochemical annotation. One traditional way to deduce the function of a protein of interest is to compare itwith other sequences of known function to find a possible homologue.Methods for homology detection formerly relied on pairwise compar- isons of protein sequences. However, the accumulation of sequence data hasmotivated and facilitated the creation of families of related proteins.

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  • The 5¢ flanking region of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) gene was systematically analysed to provide the basis for understanding the mechanisms which regulate Bsep transcription. In addition substrates and drugs were investigated for their ability to alter Bsep promoter activity. Bsep promoter function was restricted to hepatocyte derived HepG2 cells. The 5¢ deletional analysis revealed a biphasic shape of reporter gene activities, indicating a suppressive element between nucleotides )800 and )512. ...

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  • Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and 3.8 million men and 3.4 million women die of the disease each year. After an acute myocardial infarction, early and successful myocardial reperfusion with the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. The process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, however, can induce injury.

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  • The seven serotypes ofClostridium botulinumneurotoxins (A–G) are the deadliest poison known to humans. They share significant sequence homo-logy and hence possess similar structure–function relationships. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) act via a four-step mechanism, viz.,

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