Biodegradable materials

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  • Since their first introduction, metallic biomaterials have always been designed to be corrosion resistant. For decades, this paradigm has become the mainframe of the biomaterials world. It has been cited in thousands of scientific papers and taught in hundreds of courses of materials for biomedical devices. It has also been followed by industries in developing millions of medical devices until today. Nowadays, with the advent of tissue engineering, biomaterials are envisaged to actively interact with the body.

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  • The increasing demand for energy worldwide, together with the depletion of crude oil reserves, environmental threats due to greenhouse gas emissions and new national and international legislation, is resulting in the imperative for petroleum-derived fuels to be complemented or substituted by biofuels. Such an alternative, renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic biofuel is biodiesel. The book “Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Processing Technologies” is intended to provide a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in biodiesel production.

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  • The first edition of 1884 contained but 5 pages of type; the second of 1898, 14 pages. Only by conciseness has it been possible to give even a summary of the principles of dietetics within the limit or this pamphlet. Should there appear in places an abruptness or incompleteness of treatment, these limitations must be my excuse. Those who wish to thoroughly study the science of food are referred to the standard work, "Food and Dietetics," by Dr. R. Hutchison (E. Arnold, 16s.). The effects of purin bodies in producing illness has been patiently and thoroughly worked out by Dr. Alexander Haig.

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  • In general, woven fabrics are known as the traditional textile fabrics for apparel manufacturing and are used widely in various fabric compositions as intermediate goods that affect human activities. The relative importance of woven fabrics as traditional textile materials is extremely large and currently application fields of woven fabrics as technical textiles are rapidly expanded by utilizing its geometric features and advantages.

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  • Solid waste management is one of the important disciplines of environmental management. It is divided into two parts, dealing with biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. The segregation of waste in most developing countries is a difficult task. This problem has a wide range of causes, including the lack of public knowledge of the problem. Lack of funds plays a small but very vital role.

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  • Compost Tea: A basic product used to build soil structure, add to the organic matter content of the soil and helps hold valuable nutrients in the soil. This tea is made from the leachate of compost and may be the best foliar feeding tool of all. It is not only an effective foliar fertilizer, it has powerful insect ñ and disease ñ control properties. The humic materials and microorganisms in compost tea are effective on many pests. German researchers studied the effects of compost tea, but gardeners have known its beneficial properties for years.

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  • Anaerobic digestion is a process by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion can be used to treat various organic wastes and recover bio-energy in the form of biogas, which consists mainly of CH4 and CO2. A great option for improving yields of anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is the co-digestion of multiple substrates.

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  • A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of composting of source separated organic matter of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in low, middle and high income areas of Karachi city with a population over 14 million. Results of MSW analysis indicate the presence of high percentage of biodegradable organic matter (71-74%), acceptable moisture content (40-50%) and C/N ratio (38-40:1). On windrow composting, not only the volume of waste was reduced but also produced a crumbly earthy smelling soil-like, compost material.

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  • Much new material has been added to this second edition. Besides a totally new chapter on radionuclides, the text has been reorganized and updated with separate chapters on metals, light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), and biodegradation. Also, some end-of-chapter exercises have been added. The dictionary of inorganic pollutants has been enlarged and some important organic pollutants added.

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  • Scaffolds A scaffold provides a three-dimensional framework to support the tissue or organ-specific cells. The scaffold not only provides mechanical support, but it must also supply critical nutrients and transport metabolites to and from the developing tissue. Important scaffold properties vary depending on the tissue but typically include specific biomechanical properties, porosity, biocompatibility, and appropriate surface characteristics for cell adhesion and differentiation. Scaffolds can be natural materials or synthetic polymers and are typically biodegradable.

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  • Proper methods should be adopted for management of solid waste disposal. Industrial wastes can be treated physically, chemically and biologically until they are less hazardous. Acidic and alkaline wastes should be first neutralized; the insoluble material if biodegradable should be allowed to degrade under controlled conditions before being disposed. As a last resort, new areas for storage of hazardous waste should be investigated such as deep well injection and more secure landfills.

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  • At present more than 62% of all MSW generated in England is disposed of in landfills3. However, European and UK legislation has been put in place to limit the amount of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) sent for disposal in landfills4. The Landfill Directive also requires waste to be pre-treated prior to disposal. The diversion of this material is one of the most significant challenges facing the management of MSW in the UK.

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  • Why a book on injectable fillers? Astonishingly, there are few books on this subject. Furthermore, during the last decade we have seen a tremendous increase in the number of filler materials and a parallel increase in our knowledge about them. Treatments have become more subtle and now include more indications. The task of this book is therefore twofold. First, to give an overview on the most common biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fillers and to give parallely some advice about how to approach new fillers, which are often accompanied by marketing myths rather than good scientific data.

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