Small amount of drugs and poisons incorporated into human bodies are hidden among large amounts of biological components, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and membranes. It is not easy to detect only a target compound from such complicated matrices. Before instrumental analysis, extraction procedure is usually essential and very important.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 66. Stem Cell Biology
Stem Cell Biology: Introduction
Stem cell biology is a relatively new field that explores the characteristics and possible clinical applications of the different types of pluripotential cells that serve as the progenitors of more differentiated cell types. In addition to potential therapeutic applications (Chap. 67), patient-derived stem cells can also provide disease models and a means to test drug effectiveness.
Quantification of Drug Action
the dose at which one-half of the group has responded. The dose range encompassing the dose-frequency relationship reflects the variation in individual sensitivity to the drug. Although similar in shape, a dose-frequency relationship has, thus, a different meaning than does a dose-effect relationship. The latter can be evaluated in one individual and results from an intraindividual dependency of the effect on drug concentration.
Among many carbamate pesticides commercially available in Japan, those with relatively high toxicities are shown in Table 4.1 . Carbamate pesticides are generally classified into N-methylcarbamate insecticides and N-allylcarbamate herbicides in view of their chemical structures and biological actions. The number of fatalities due to poisoning by carbamate pesticides is 50–100 every year in Japan; many of them are poisoned by methomyl .
The art of compliance is a craft much like that of a carpenter who learns to
work with various kinds of wood and designs. Ours is an industry wrought
with differences. While the regulations that govern FDA-regulated industries
are proscribed, how the regulations are interpreted and applied really
depends on experience and how well one has mastered the craft of compliance.
There are no proscribed procedures, but there are guideposts common
to all FDA-regulated industries, whether a firm manufactures medical
devices, pharmaceuticals, or biological products....
Drugs li KT used in Hyperlipoproteinemias
port vehicles in the aqueous media of lymph and blood. To this end, small amounts of lipid are coated with a layer of phospholipids, embedded in which are additional proteins—the apolipoproteins (A). According to the amount and the composition of stored lipids, as well as the type of apolipoprotein, one distinguishes 4 transport forms:
Lipid-Lowering Agents Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential constituents of the organism.
Despite massive efforts in drug discovery fueled by combinatory
chemistry, recombinant DNA technology, and highthroughput
screening, surprisingly few molecules make it
through the drug development process. While the reasons
are debated, it is certain that many new chemical entities
(NCEs) suffer from recurring problems that hinder development—
low water solubility, instability, or inadequate
pharmacokinetics. An estimated 43% of NCEs are poorly
The general meaning of gene therapy is to correct defective genes that are responsible
for disease development. The most common form of gene therapy involves the
insertion, alteration or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological
tissues. Many of gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery
of therapeutic genes made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems.
Recently, the viral vectors in laboratory and clinical use have been based on RNA and
DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges.
Antiangiogenic Therapy Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor angiogenesis may provide unique opportunities for cancer treatment. Acquired drug resistance of tumor cells due to their high intrinsic mutation rate is a major cause of treatment failure in human cancers. ECs comprising the tumor vasculature are genetically stable and do not share genetic changes with tumor cells; the EC apoptosis pathways are therefore intact.
Cancer Cell Biology The treatment of most human cancers with conventional cytoreductive agents has been unsuccessful due to the Gompertzian-like growth kinetics of solid tumors (i.e., tumor growth is exponential in small tumors, with increasing doubling times as tumors expand; since conventional chemotherapeutic agents target proliferating cells, noncycling cells in large tumors are relatively resistant). Genetic instability is inherent in most cancer cells and predisposes to the development of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. Thus, although tumors arise from a single cell (i.e.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors, members of the steroid hormone family of nuclear receptors, are targets of inhibition by drugs used to treat breast and prostate cancers, respectively. Tamoxifen, a partial agonist and antagonist of ER function, can mediate tumor regression in metastatic breast cancer and can prevent disease recurrence in the adjuvant setting, saving thousands of lives each year. Tamoxifen binds to the ER and modulates its transcriptional activity, inhibiting activity in the breast but promoting activity in bone and uterine epithelium.
The collected Chapters in this volume describe the current status of poly(ethylene
glycol) (PEG) modification of proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides and
small molecule drugs, the recent advances in conjugation chemistry, and new
clinical products. The book provides an excellent update in this rapidly evolving
field, and the comprehensive collection of Chapters complements well past
reviews/volumes that have documented the evolution of PEGylation. For
example, a reader new to this field is encouraged to gain the historical perspective
by reading the following reviews [1–8].
Signaling Pathways Downstream of Rtks: Ras and PI3K Several oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene products are components of signal transduction pathways that emanate from RTK activation (Fig. 80-2). The most extensively studied are the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, both of which regulate multiple processes in cancer cells, including cell cycle progression, resistance to apoptotic signals, angiogenesis, and cell motility.
Oncogene Addiction and Synthetic Lethality The concepts of oncogene addiction and synthetic lethality have spurred new drug development targeting oncogene and tumor-suppressor pathways. As discussed earlier in this chapter and outlined in Fig. 80-3, cancer cells become physiologically dependent upon signaling pathways containing activated oncogenes; this can effect proliferation (i.e.
Biological sciences in nursing has seen a change in status over the last 20
years. As a nurse educator, I became aware that with the introduction of
the ‘nursing model’ all signs of biology were banished from the curriculum.
Anatomy and physiology were thought to be akin to the ‘medical model’,
and as such they fell outside the nurse’s territory. At all costs, nurses had
to be seen as autonomous practitioners in their own right.
This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the
adenosine A3 receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from
studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction,
integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an
important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is
Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are expressed in almost all organs and tissues and
regulate a large number of diverse physiological processes upon activation by
epinephrine and norepinephrine. There are three families of ARs, a1, a2, and
b-ARs, with distinct pharmacological properties and functions. Since the first
identification of bARs more than three decades ago, research on ARs has led to
the establishment of many fundamental concepts in G protein-coupled receptor
We set out to determine the levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first- and second-line TB drugs in an urban
population in Zambia. Sputum samples were collected consecutively from all smear-positive, new and previously treated patients,
from four diagnostic centres in Ndola between January and July 2006. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the
proportion method against four first- and two second-line TB drugs. Results. Among 156 new cases, any resistance was observed
to be 7.7%, monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was 4.5% and 1.3%, respectively.
However, these events are but the immediate manifestation of a continuing dependent relationship that involves three types of interactions: licensing CBW drugs and biologics, especially vaccines; using Investigational New Drugs in military combat (and other special situations); and ensuring the compliance of producers with manufacturing requirements. DoD has not been well organized to respond to FDA. This report proposes various education and training programs that should be initiated for all defense personnel engaged in the development or acquisition of drugs and biologics for CBW defense.