Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced by many species of teleost fish
that inhabit potentially lethal ice-laden seawater and afford them protec-tion from freezing. To date type I AFPs have been fully characterized in
two teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes.
The recent discovery of a large hyperactive antifreeze protein in the blood
plasma of winter flounder has helped explain why this fish does not freeze
in icy seawater. The previously known, smaller and much less active type I
antifreeze proteins cannot by themselves protect the flounder down to the
freezing point of seawater.
Type I antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are usually small, Ala-richa-helical poly-peptides found in right-eyed flounders and certain species of sculpin. These
proteins are divided into two distinct subclasses, liver type and skin type,
which are encoded by separate gene families. Blood plasma from Atlantic
(Liparis atlanticus) and dusky (Liparis gibbus) snailfish contain type I AFPs
that are significantly larger than all previously described type I AFPs.
Recrystallization is a phenomenon moderately well documented in the geological and metallurgical literature. This book provides a timely overview of the latest research and methods in a variety of fields where recrystallization is studied and is an important factor. The main advantage of a new look at these fields is the rapid increase in modern techniques, such as TEM, spectrometers and modeling capabilities, all of which are providing us with far better images and analysis than ever previously possible....