This strategic lab guide explores the current methodological variety of molecular biology and genomics in a simple manner, addressing the assets and drawbacks as well as critical points. It also provides short and precise summaries of routine procedures as well as listings of the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods.This lab book illustrates ways out of experimental dead ends and teaches a feeling for doing the right experiment at the right time.
Even before the events of September 11, 2001, threat assessments suggested that the United States should prepare to respond to terrorist attacks inside its borders. This report documents research into the use of military medical assets to support civil authorities in the aftermath of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or conventional high expl
IAS 2 Inventories was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in
December 1993. It replaced IAS 2 Valuation and Presentation of Inventories in the Context of the
Historical Cost System (originally issued in October 1975).
The Standing Interpretations Committee developed SIC-1 Consistency—Different Cost Formulas
for Inventories, which was issued in December 1997
Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) have been
around for more than fifty years. Congress established
REITs in 1960 to allow individual investors to invest
in large-scale, income-producing real estate. REITs
provide a way for individual investors to earn a share
of the income produced through commercial real
estate ownership – without actually having to go out
and buy commercial real estate.
What is a REIT?
A REIT, generally, is a company that owns – and
typically operates – income-producing real estate or
real estate-related assets.
A public pension fund’s decision to invest in emerging domestic markets is driven first
and foremost by its fiduciary duty and overarching mission to achieve competitive financial
returns for its pension fund retirees and beneficiaries. Public pension funds, as with any
institutional fund, seek to outperform the market. Investments targeted to EDM can both
achieve good returns and help overall fund performance by diversifying the pension fund’s
portfolio. A well-diversified portfolio is made up of a spectrum of asset classes as a means of
spreading risk across classes.
Intangible assets include goodwill arising from acquisitions made after January 1, 1992.
Goodwill is amortized using the straight-line method over its estimated economic life, not
to exceed forty years.
Certain acquired intangible assets other than goodwill (‘in-process R&D') are expensed in
the period of acquisition.
Patents and trademarks acquired from third parties are capitalized and amortized over their
Further, in Canada, asset default factors for preferred shares, where rated, are based on the
rating agency grade. For financial leases where rated, and the lease is also secured by the
general credit of the lessee, the asset default factor is based on the rating agency grade.
Here’s why: if the fund invested all its assets in 60-day paper, and
tomorrow your shareholders wanted to withdraw some of their money,
you would be forced to sell 59-day securities in what could be a weak
market. To prevent this—and comply with Rule 2a-7—you’ll need to hold
at least a 10 percent cash position. To make sure that you’re always in
compliance, you’ll stagger the maturities of the holdings in the fund, so that
some securities are being paid off every day, providing a steady cash ﬂow.
But there’s even more to the maturity decision.
When companies calculate their breakeven points, they often come at it from the perspective of how
much revenue they require to cover their expenses: “If we don’t sell $2 million worth of widgets this
year, we’ll face a shortfall and we’ll need to downsize.” Similarly, a hedge fund manager may ask:
“What level of assets and performance do I need to cover my expenses?”
However, the hedge fund business model allows for a different approach.
The crisis has shown that securitization is heavily dependent on markets’ perceptions and could
be subject to sudden bouts of illiquidity generated from investors’ concerns. Namely the
consequences of the increased participation in bank funding by financial markets’ investors and
the large increases in securitized assets, can led to acute liquidity crises.
However, a number of member jurisdictions’ national laws implementing the investment rules
of the current Solvency I Directives15
do refer to, or place reliance on, ratings in order to
determine whether a certain asset is authorised or eligible to cover technical provisions.
Moreover, in a number of member jurisdictions, (re)insurance undertakings are required, as
part of their internal reinsurance policy, to pay special attention to the financial strength of
their reinsurers, using ratings as a proxy.
The extension of central bank liquidity eased the pace of asset-shedding
observed in late 2011, but did not turn the underlying trend. If the banks in the
EBA sample, for instance, failed to roll over their senior unsecured debt
maturing over a two-year horizon, which amounts to more than €1,100 billion
(€600 billion among banks with a capital shortfall), they would have to shed
funded assets in equal measure. By covering these funding needs, the LTROs
and dollar swap lines helped avert an accelerated deleveraging process.
Omission of minerals is just one of the issues
addressed in the construction of environmental
accounts. Still, extending the nipa to include
minerals is a natural starting point for the project
of environmental accounting. These assets—
which include notably petroleum, natural gas,
coal, and nonfuel minerals—are already part of
the market economy and have important links to
environmental policy. Indeed, production from
these assets is already included in the nation’s
gross domestic product (gdp).
The extension of national accounts to cover
economic natural assets and their services
(incorporated into commodities) is important but
cannot deliver a sufficiently complete vision of
the interaction of people and nature. For example,
an enterprise holding and managing a forest will
know and care about trees and timber, but much
less about 'non-timber forest values', or forest water
regulating functions and micro-climate effects which
may be highly important for other sectors of society
and for biodiversity.
There are four reasons why earnings are a poor measure of performance compared to changes in shareholder
value. First, unlike cash ﬂow, which underpins SVA, accounting earnings are arbitrary and easily manipulated by
management. Different, equally acceptable, accounting methods lead to quite different earnings ﬁgures. Prominent
examples include alternative ways to compute the cost of goods sold (LIFO versus FIFO), different methods of
depreciating assets, and the various choices in accounting for mergers and acquisitions.
Many are also concerned that countries will use SWFs to support what one
analyst has called “state capitalism,” using government-controlled assets to secure
stakes around the world in strategic areas such as telecommunications, energy and
mineral resources, and financial services, among other sectors.
Fundamental Indexing™ (“FI”) is one of the most successful new investment
products to be launched during the 2000s. In a little over two years it has attracted over
$10 billion in portfolio investments. The product has been successful both in its appeal to
institutional investors and in its ability to gather assets from retail investors in the
burgeoning ETF market place. FI has been a marketing sensation. Moreover the actual
performance of the FI portfolio has been excellent.
In Financial Economics, many researchers have studied option prices, because these
derivatives contain unique information that is not available from the prices of other financial
instruments. A call option gives the buyer the right to purchase in the future a certain asset at
a price fixed today. The value of such an option is determined by the distance between the
current stock price and the exercise price. When market participants price option contracts in
the course of trading, they use forecasts of the probability of different asset prices for the
period until the derivative expires.
Institutional investors are, by some margin, the
most important category of investor to quoted
companies owing to the sheer weight of assets
that they manage and the degree to which they can
invest. It is widely acknowledged that institutional
investors own the vast majority of the UK equity
market. In some cases, institutional investors may
also own nearly all of a company’s issued share
One of the most influential studies of the pace of evolutionary change was pub-
lished in 1971 by two young paleontologists at the American Museum of Natural
History named Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould. They pointed out that the
fossils of a typical species showed few signs of change during its lifetime. New
species branching off from old ones had small but distinctive differences.
Eldredge carefully documented this stasis in trilobites, an extinct lineage of
armored arthropods. He counted the rows of columns in the eyes of each sub-