Biological debt

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  • These daily movements in the Portuguese long-term interest rates could reflect a risk premium. The EC recommendation clearly signalled to markets that Portuguese public finances were facing difficulties. Therefore, markets might have attributed additional risk to the government debt, demanding a higher interest rate to hold the long-term bonds. At the same time, the risk of private bonds might have decreased relatively to government bonds, since this EC recommendation was not seen as directly damaging this segment of the market.

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  • After a few months of respite brought about mainly by the provision of longer-term liquidity by the Eurosystem in early 2012, the sovereign-debt crisis intensified again in spring. However, financial markets have recovered since July, helped by important policy decisions in the EU and the announcement of further monetary easing on both sides of the Atlantic. Sovereign yields in most vulnerable countries have receded somewhat since summer. Risk appetite appears to have improved as stock markets have recuperated the losses experienced earlier in the year.

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  • We start by considering the role of sovereign debt problems. Are the baseline results picking up greater-than-expected effects of sovereign debt problems rather than the effects of fiscal consolidation? As Table 2 reports, the results are robust to controlling for the initial (end- 2009) government-debt-to-GDP ratio, for the initial fiscal-balance-to-GDP ratio, and for the initial structural fiscal-balance-to-GDP ratio.

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  • This study does not examine the relationship between credit scores and the likelihood of insurance losses. Regulators and consumer groups have expressed growing concern that use of credit scores may restrict the availability of insurance products in predominantly minority and low income communities, markets that already show signs of significant affordability and access problems (Kabler, 2004).

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  • The extension of central bank liquidity eased the pace of asset-shedding observed in late 2011, but did not turn the underlying trend. If the banks in the EBA sample, for instance, failed to roll over their senior unsecured debt maturing over a two-year horizon, which amounts to more than €1,100 billion (€600 billion among banks with a capital shortfall), they would have to shed funded assets in equal measure. By covering these funding needs, the LTROs and dollar swap lines helped avert an accelerated deleveraging process.

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  • Obtaining comprehensive data and information on public debt is challenging. Data availability is limited along the dimensions of time, country coverage, and debt completeness. For example, data on external public debt for developing countries are generally available from the GDF dataset. However, the GDF does not cover advanced economies, and separates public and private components of external debt only for long-term debt. Similarly, the IFS database starts in 1970, but data are available for just a handful of countries in the early years.

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  • The University of Kentucky owns its name and all trademarks. Trademarks include any logo, signature, symbol, mark, seal, nickname, letters, word or derivative that can be associated with UK and can be distinguished from those of other institutions or entities. UK protects and enhances its reputation by assuring that its trademarks appear only on appropriate materials or quality products. UK established a Trademark Licensing Program in 1984. Licensed manufacturers pay the University a royalty on all products produced. These revenues help fund the debt service on UK’s William T.

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  • The Thrive Diet grew out of necessity. At the age of 15, I decided that I wanted to become a professional athlete. My goal was to ultimately be a professional Ironman triathlete. Consisting of a 2.4-mile swim, 112-mile cycle, and a 26.2-mile run (a marathon), Ironman triathlon racing is not the easiest way to make a living. But it appealed to me. I enjoyed outdoor exercise, hard work, and a challenge, so why not make a career out of it?

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