Xem 1-20 trên 310 kết quả Biological factors
  • Ten years ago when I wrote the foreword to the first edition of this book, the concept of women’s health was changing at a rapid pace. The focus was just shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded perception that women’s health encompasses biological, familial, cultural, economic, emotional, psychological, and behavioral elements of each woman and her sociopolitical environment, beyond just the reproductive organs and across her entire lifespan.

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  • The state of aquatic ecosystems reflects the general state of the biosphere. The situation in the biosphere affected by anthropogenic factors was characterized as “a slow explosion” (Fedorov 1987). The global change in the biosphere and climatic system of the Earth is a manifestation of this “slow explosion” (World Resources 1990–1991, Izrael et al. 1992).

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  • Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

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  • This book presents and discusses current research in the field of biology, with a particular emphasis on biological factors and their role in health and well-being. Topics discussed include the biotechnology of cyanobacteria; the reasons why glucose is the principal source of energy for living beings; post-transcriptional effects of estrogen on gene expression; sialylation mechanism in bacteria and the evolution biology of health and disease clinical medicine from a Darwinian perspective.

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  • The book Recent Advances in the Biology, Therapy and Management of Melanoma brings up-to-date information regarding a number of aspects which culminate in illuminating potential targets in the fight against melanoma. This book is intended to be a reference book for both the scientific and clinical communities and brings complicated subject matter together in an easy, readable way. Undoubtedly fundamental scientific understanding has to then be translated to the clinic in order for us to make significant strides in eradicating melanoma.

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  • Although technical advances have resulted in marked improvements in the ability to diag‐ nose and surgically treat primary and metastatic brain tumors, the incidence and mortality rates of these tumors is increasing. Particularly affected are young adults and the elderly. The present standard treatment modalities following surgical resection including cranial irradia‐ tion and systemic or local chemotherapy each have limited efficacy and serious adverse side effects.

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  • The Adipocyte and Adipose Tissue Adipose tissue is composed of the lipid-storing adipose cell and a stromal/vascular compartment in which cells including preadipocytes and macrophages reside. Adipose mass increases by enlargement of adipose cells through lipid deposition, as well as by an increase in the number of adipocytes. Obese adipose tissue is also characterized by increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages.

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  • Imatinib has also demonstrated targeted activity in other diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract (stomach and small intestine). The pathogenic molecular event for most patients with this disease is mutation of the proto-oncogene c-Kit, leading to the constitutive activation of this receptor tyrosine kinase without the binding of its physiologic ligand, stem cell factor. About 10% of GISTs encode activating mutations of the PDGFRα instead of c-Kit.

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  • Figure 80-6 Oncogene signaling pathways are activated during tumor progression and promote metastatic potential. This figure shows a cancer cell that has undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under the influence of several environmental signals. Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathways, as well as changes in the expression of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cellextracellular matrix interactions.

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  • Acetylation of the amino terminus of the core histones H3 and H4 induces an open chromatin conformation that promotes transcription initiation. Histone acetylases are components of coactivator complexes recruited to promoter/enhancer regions by sequence-specific transcription factors during the activation of genes (Fig. 80-4). Histone deacetylases (HDACs; at least 17 are encoded in the human genome) are recruited to genes by transcriptional repressors and prevent the initiation of gene transcription.

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  • Several general principles have arisen from these studies. Bevacizumab appears to potentiate the effects of many different types of active chemotherapeutic regimens used to treat a variety of different tumor types. No phase III trials have demonstrated single-agent activity for bevacizumab; colon and lung cancer trials have demonstrated a lack of activity when used alone. An exception may be renal cell cancer (RCC), a tumor that is specifically dependent upon VEGF as the result of deletion of the VHL tumor suppressor and activation of the HIF-1α transcription factor (see above).

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  • Aidan Budd*, Stephanie Blandin*, Elena A Levashina† and Toby J Gibson* Addresses: *European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany. †UPR 9022 du CNRS, IBMC, rue René Descartes, F-67087 Strasbourg CEDEX, France. Correspondence: Toby J Gibson. E-mail: toby.gibson@embl.de reviews Published: 26 May 2004 Genome Biology 2004, 5:R38 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.com/2004/5/6/R38 Received: 20 February 2004 Revised: 2 April 2004 Accepted: 8 April 2004 © 2004 Budd et al.

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  • This book contains a wealth of useful information on current research on viscoelasticity. By covering a broad variety of rheology, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and viscoelasticity-related topics, this book is addressed to a wide spectrum of academic and applied researchers and scientists but it could also prove useful to industry specialists. The subject areas include, theory, simulations, biological materials and food products among others.

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  • MUC5Bis one of the major mucin genes expressed in the respiratory tract. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that MUC5B is expressed in human lung adenocarcinomas and during lung morphogenesis. Moreover, in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, a converse correlation between MUC5B and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression

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  • Growth factors are a group of proteins that regulate a wide variety of cel-lular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, adhesion, and apoptosis of target cells. They play crucial roles in the formation and maintenance of tissue architecture in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis.

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  • Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent blocker of angiogene-sis in vivo, and of endothelial cell migration and tubule formation, binds with high affinity to an as yet unknown protein on the surfaces of endothe-lial cells. Given that protein fingerprinting suggested a match of a 60 kDa PEDF-binding protein in bovine retina withBos taurusF1-ATP synthase b-subunit, and that F1Fo-ATP synthase components have been identified recently as cell-surface receptors, we examined the direct binding of PEDF to F1. ...

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  • RasGRF is a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors with dual spe-cificity for both Ras and Rac GTPases. In this study, using mouse brain extracts, we show that both RasGRF1 and RasGRF2 interact with micro-tubules in an in vitro microtubule assembly system and this binding is very tight. To characterize this association, recombinant purified proteins con-taining different regions of RasGRF1 were tested for their ability to bind microtubules preassembled from pure tubulin.

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  • Factors thought to have contributed to the decline of the endangered suckers include degradation of spawning habitat, deterioration in the quality of water in Upper Klamath Lake, overexploitation by commercial and noncommercial fishing (now regulated), introduction of competitive or predaceous exotic species, bloc

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  • Introductory Chapter Tissue Regeneration – A Clinical Science Whose Time Has Come 1 Jamie Davies Understanding and Manipulating Endogeneous Healing of Tissues 11 The Role of Physical Factors in Cell Differentiation, Tissue Repair and Regeneration 13 Monica Monici and Francesca Cialdai Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Nerve Repair 35 Jiamou Li, Hua Zhang and Cong Ren Disinfection of Human Tissues in Orthopedic Surgical Oncology by High Hydrostatic Pressure Peter Diehl, Johannes Schauwecker,...

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  • The pig faces significant biological and environmental challenges after weaning. A great deal of information is available on behavior, environment, health, and nutrition of the newly weaned pig; however, newly weaned pigs still suffer a growth lag. The pig’s small intestinal structure and function is altered during the days that follow weaning. As a consequence, the digestive and absorptive capacity of weanling pigs is decreased during this period and this may be partially responsible for the post weaning growth lag....

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