Biological indicators

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  • This book is a response to that need for a synthesis. It contains 17 chapters, each prepared by authors who are internation- ally recognized for their knowledge and expertise in a particular area of soil/plant biology.

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  • Antiangiogenic Therapy Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor angiogenesis may provide unique opportunities for cancer treatment. Acquired drug resistance of tumor cells due to their high intrinsic mutation rate is a major cause of treatment failure in human cancers. ECs comprising the tumor vasculature are genetically stable and do not share genetic changes with tumor cells; the EC apoptosis pathways are therefore intact.

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  • New Concepts in the Development of Cancer Therapeutics Cancer Stem Cells It has long been recognized that only a small proportion of the cells within a tumor are capable of initiating colonies in vitro or of forming tumors at high efficiency when injected into immunocompromised NOD/SCID mice. Current work indicates that human acute and chronic myeloid leukemias (AML and CML) have a small population of cells (

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  • A central pathway through which leptin acts to regulate appetite and body weight. Leptin signals through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus to induce increased production of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), requiring the processing enzyme PC-1 (proenzyme convertase 1). α-MSH acts as an agonist on melanocortin-4 receptors to inhibit appetite, and the neuropeptide AgRp (Agouti-related peptide) acts as an antagonist of this receptor. Mutations that cause obesity in humans are indicated by the solid green arrows.

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  • Fresh-Frozen Plasma FFP contains stable coagulation factors and plasma proteins: fibrinogen, antithrombin, albumin, as well as proteins C and S. Indications for FFP include correction of coagulopathies, including the rapid reversal of warfarin; supplying deficient plasma proteins; and treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. FFP should not be routinely used to expand blood volume. FFP is an acellular component and does not transmit intracellular infections, e.g., CMV.

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  • The aim of this book is to make Australian herons, egrets and bitterns better understood and more appreciated by bird watchers, students and indeed anyone who has a particular admiration for these striking members of our avian fauna and a concern for their long-term survival. Unless otherwise indicated, in what follows ‘heron’ will collectively refer to all three of these members of the family Ardeidae. This book is certainly overdue.

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  • Chapter 30 - Plant diversity II: The evolution of seed plants. This chapter presents the following content: This chapter explain why pollen grains were an important adaptation for successful reproduction on land; list the four phyla of gymnosperms; describe the life history of a pine; indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation;...

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  • Chapter 30 - Plant diversity II: The evolution of seed plants. This chapter explain why pollen grains were an important adaptation for successful reproduction on land; list the four phyla of gymnosperms; describe the life history of a pine; indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation;...

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  • In general, the health status at old age has an important individual and social relevance. The vulnerability is increasing by physiological and morphological changes in the organism and central nervous system during the ageing process. The indicators of physiological health are based on prevalence of disabilities and causes of death. In Germany the main causes of death are circulatory diseases, neoplasms, diseases of respiratory system and diseases of digestive system (Statistisches Bundesamt 2007a; Nolte, Shkolinikov & McKee 2000).

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  • Acknowledging the tremendous changes in the health care system, this book offers a current and fresh perspective on nursing in the 21st century. A departure from the "medical model", its emphasis on client education, shifting delivery of care, and a collaborative approach fosters a practical view of the challenges the student will encounter in the workplace. Core content areas are covered in detail, including pathophysiology, normal and high-risk pregnancy, and women's health across the life-span.

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  • 7 Biological Effects of Synthetic Surfactants and Participation of Hydrobionts in Water Purification Experience indicates the negative impacts of surfactants and surfactant-containing preparations on representatives of the major functional ecosystemic blocks, including both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms (see above). The author realizes that interpretation of the results obtained requires great caution and there are many factors that can affect the manifestation of biological effects of synthetic surfactants in more complex systems.

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  • Water pollution is a major global problem that requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (from international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.

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  • Several studies have addressed the cross-language transfer of comprehension skills and strategies. Royer and Carlo (1991) examined the transfer of listening and reading comprehension skills from Spanish to English by 49 sixth-grade students enrolled in a transitional bilingual education program. Results indicated that students’ English reading performance at the end of sixth grade was most highly correlated with their reading in Spanish a year earlier. That is, good fifth-grade readers in Spanish became good sixth-grade readers in English.

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  • Having identified and classified relevant water pollution problems, and having assigned priority to them, the next step is to identify appropriate interventions to cope with the problems. For every problem identified, therefore, an assessment should be made of the most appropriate means for intervention. Furthermore, an indication should be given of the relevant administrative level(s) to be involved. The proposed interventions may vary significantly in detail and scope.

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  • As even these preliminary comments should indicate, Hollywood has experienced a rich and dynamic history. The aim of this chapter is to chart that history in more detail and also to trace the efforts of film crit- ics and scholars to make sense of it. Journalistic film criticism dates back to Hollywood’s earliest years, and the film industry always has been subject to heavy coverage in both the trade and popular press. But the systematic scholarly study of Hollywood did not really take hold, interestingly enough, until after Hollywood’s postwar collapse.

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  • The inclusion of Business Angels in the range of ‘informal’ (as opposed to ‘institutional’) investors provides us an indication that there are potential difficulties in measuring the size of the Business Angel community. Mason and Harrison identify two main problems, identification and definition. Regarding the former, in his seminal work on Business Angels, William Wetzel (1983) notes that the total population of Business Angels is unknown and probably unknowable on account of their invisibility, desire for anonymity, and the undocumented nature of their investing.

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  • A variety of organisms have been investigated to evaluate their potential as biological indicators of different forms of pollution in the aquatic environment (e.g. review by Gunkel 1994). Certain species have been identified as being highly sensitive either in their physiological response to aquatic contaminants or in their ability to accumulate particular toxins in a dose-time dependent manner.

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  • In this study, structural features of Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharide (TMP-A) were investigated by a combination of infrared (IR) spectra, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that TMP-A had a backbone of 1,4-- d-glucopyranose residue which branches at O-6 based on the experimental results. The branches were mainly composed of an (1→3)--d-galactopyranose residue, and terminated with -d-xylopyranose residue.

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  • Bank of America Merrill Lynch operates an active carbon market services business that provides risk management, market access and liquidity, and structured finance to a variety of corporate clients looking to offset carbon emissions or manage their carbon exposure. In 2008, we engineered a ground-breaking transaction to preserve a 750,000-hectare refuge in the Aceh province of Indonesia, an ecologically sensitive region recovering from the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004.

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  • In this introductory chapter, we indicate the aims and structure of this book. We also indicate some of the ways in which the book is not synoptic in its coverage, but rather offers an interlinked account of some major developments in our understanding of the dynamics of ecological systems, from populations to communities, along with practical applications to important problems.

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