Biological interactions

Xem 1-20 trên 325 kết quả Biological interactions
  • In laboratory conditions (relative humidity 50-70%, temperature 25 ± 2 ° C, 16 h light) monitoring studies of biological interactions between spiders catch prey Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudermans) and Orius bugs prey sauteri (Poppius) in an environment with lots of prey thrips thrips palmi (Karny)

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  • The success of the first volume of The Biology of Sea Turtles revealed a need for broad but comprehensive reviews of recent major advances in sea turtle biology. At that time, book size constraints as well as the fast-paced changes in some fields dictated that this need could be only partially addressed in a single volume. Many important topics were not covered and were left for future volumes. Volume II emphasizes practical aspects of biology that relate to sea turtle management and changes in marine and coastal ecosystems....

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  • Cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behaviors, interactions, and environment. This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology....

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  • During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive, indeed formerly unimaginable rates.

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  • The explosion of new technologies in the post-genomic era is allowing the study of biological systems on a genome-wide scale, at the main functional genomic levels: (epi)-genome, transcriptome, proteome, endo- and exometabolome, and their interactions. At the same time that these techniques are being applied and refined, the complexity of biological systems is being rediscovered (1) with thousands of components (e.g., genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites) participating in finely tuned metabolic and regulatory networks.

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  • Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.[35] This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.

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  • Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

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  • Figure 80-6 Oncogene signaling pathways are activated during tumor progression and promote metastatic potential. This figure shows a cancer cell that has undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under the influence of several environmental signals. Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathways, as well as changes in the expression of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cellextracellular matrix interactions.

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  • CD91 plays an important role in the scavenging of apoptotic material, pos-sibly through binding to soluble pattern-recognition molecules. In this study, we investigated the interaction of CD91 with mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins and lung surfactant proteins. Both MBL and L-ficolin were found to bind CD91. The MBL–CD91 interaction was time- and concentra-tion-dependent and could be inhibited by known ligands of CD91.

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  • For elucidating protein–protein interactions, many methodologies have been developed during the past two decades. For investigation of interac-tions inside cells under physiological conditions, yeast is an attractive organism with which to quickly screen for hopeful candidates using versa-tile genetic technologies, and various types of approaches are now avail-able.

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  • arco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA)2b maintains the cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by transferring Ca 2+ from the cytosol to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, SERCA2b has also been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of secreted and membrane proteins via direct protein–protein interactions, involving components of the ER folding and quality-control machinery, as well as newly synthesized G protein-coupled receptors.

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  • RasGRF is a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors with dual spe-cificity for both Ras and Rac GTPases. In this study, using mouse brain extracts, we show that both RasGRF1 and RasGRF2 interact with micro-tubules in an in vitro microtubule assembly system and this binding is very tight. To characterize this association, recombinant purified proteins con-taining different regions of RasGRF1 were tested for their ability to bind microtubules preassembled from pure tubulin.

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  • Cyclotides are a family of bioactive plant peptides that are characterized by a circular protein backbone and three conserved tightly packed disulfide bonds. The antimicrobial and hemolytic properties of cyclotides, along with the relative hydrophobicity of the peptides, point to the biological mem-brane as a target for cyclotides.

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  • Identify the four major elements; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: neutron and proton, atomic number and mass number, atomic weight and mass number; distinguish between and discuss the biological importance of the following: nonpolar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions.

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  • Chapter 3 - Water and the fitness of the environment. This chapter describes the structure of the water molecule and explores the many ways that polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds among water molecules affect organisms and their interactions with their environments. In addition, this chapter discusses topics including concentrations of solutions, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), and buffer solutions.

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  • Susan L.Lindquist*† and Steven Henikoff‡ *Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142; and ‡The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 Over the past half-century, the central dogma, in which DNA makes RNA makes protein, has dominated thinking in biology, with continuing refinements in understanding of DNA inheritance, gene expression, and macromolecular interactions. However, we have also witnessed the elucidation of epigenetic phenomena that violate conventional notions of inheritance.

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  • Recent reports have demonstrated that interactions between the microtu-bule-associated protein tau and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Fyn play a critical role in mediating synaptic toxicity and neuronal loss in response to b-amyloid (Ab) in models of Alzheimer’s disease.

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  • Weak and transient protein–protein interactions are associated with biolog-ical processes, but many are still undefined because of the difficulties in their identification. Here, we describe a redesigned method to screen transient protein–protein interactions by using a novel signal amplification circuit, which is incorporated into yeast to artificially magnify the signal responding to the interactions.

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  • Bovine glutamate dehydrogenase is potently inhibited by zinc and the major impact is on Vmaxsuggesting a V-type effect on catalysis or product release. Zinc inhibition decreases as glutamate concentrations decrease suggesting a role for subunit interactions.

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  • Inclusion bodies are insoluble protein aggregates usually found in recombi-nant bacteria when they are forced to produce heterologous protein species. These particles are formed by polypeptides that cross-interact through sterospecific contacts and that are steadily deposited in either the cell’s cytoplasm or the periplasm.

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