Biological invasions

Xem 1-20 trên 32 kết quả Biological invasions
  • The timing of the publication of this book couldn’t be better as we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Charles Elton’s seminal book, The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Since this influential book was published in 1958, the study of bioinvasions has developed exponentially, alongside the exponential growth in the magnitude of the invasion problem itself. Today, bioinvasion, a highly complex ecological process and environmental concern, has become a specific branch in ecology and environmental studies, with many disciplines developing within it....

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  • Biological invasions are one of the major threats to our native biodiversity. The magnitude of biodiversity losses, land degradation and productivity losses of managed and natural ecosystems due to invasive species is enormous. It has an adverse impact on our efforts to maintain biodiversity and on our conservation programs, and thus could create societal instability.

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  • The long-term approach to achieving protection is “ecological separation.” A true ecological separation is defined as no inter-basin transfer of aquatic organisms via the Chicago Waterway System at any time – 100% effectiveness. Ecological separation prohibits the movement or interbasin transfer of aquatic organisms between the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins via the CWS. Once established, the impacts of invasive species on ecosystem health are permanent and irreversible.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 80. Cancer Cell Biology and Angiogenesis Cancer Cell Biology and Angiogenesis: Introduction Two characteristic features define a cancer: unregulated cell growth and tissue invasion/metastasis. Unregulated cell growth without invasion is a feature of benign neoplasms, or new growths. Cancer is a synonym for malignant neoplasm. Cancers of epithelial tissues are called carcinomas; cancers of nonepithelial (mesenchymal) tissues are called sarcomas. Cancers arising from hematopoietic or lymphoid cells are called leukemias or lymphomas.

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  • In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.

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  • Microbial pathogens exploit the ubiquitin system to facilitate infection and manipulate the immune responses of the host. In this study, susceptibility to Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasion was found to be increased upon overexpression of the deubiquitinating enzyme otubain 1 (OTUB1), a member of the ovarian tumour domain-containing protein family.

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  • Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 inhibited human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through recon-stituted basement membranein vitro. Inhibition of invasion was dependent upon plasminogen and MMP-3 activation, was impaired by the peptide MMP-3 inhibitor Ac-Arg-Cys-Gly-Val-Pro-Asp-NH2 and was associated with: rapid MMP-3-mediated plasminogen degradation to microplas-minogen and angiostatin-like fragments;

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  • Breast cancer cells exhibit excessive proteolysis, which is responsible for extensive extracellular matrix degradation, invasion and metastasis. Besides other proteases, lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B has been impli-cated in these processes and the impairment of its intracellular activity was suggested to reduce harmful proteolysis and hence diminish progression of breast tumors.

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  • Microbes produce an extraordinary array of microbial defense systems. These include broad-spectrum classical antibiotics, metabolic byproducts, such as the lactic acids produced by lactobacilli, lytic agents such as lysozymes, numerous types of protein exotoxins, and bacteriocins, which are loosely defined as biologically active protein moieties with a bacteriocidal mode of action.

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  • Tissue Engineering is the first medical therapy where engineered tissues could potentially become fully integrated within the patient, thus offering a permanent cure for many diseases not curable today.

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  • This book, now in its third edition, began almost 25 years ago when Weed Ecology: Implications for Vegetation Management was published in 1984. That text concentrated on the need for farmers, foresters, rangeland managers, and the researchers who advised them to understand better the biology of weeds and the role people play in creating and maintaining weeds in agriculture and other production systems. We were assisted in that first effort by the writings of many early scientists, such as J. L. Harper, H. G. Baker, and E. J.

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  • Although technical advances have resulted in marked improvements in the ability to diag‐ nose and surgically treat primary and metastatic brain tumors, the incidence and mortality rates of these tumors is increasing. Particularly affected are young adults and the elderly. The present standard treatment modalities following surgical resection including cranial irradia‐ tion and systemic or local chemotherapy each have limited efficacy and serious adverse side effects.

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  • As the human population inexorably grows, its cumulative impacts on the earth’s resources are hard to ignore. The ability of the earth to support more humans is dependent on the ability of humans to manage natural resources wisely. Because disturbance alters resource levels, effective management requires understanding of the ecology of disturbance. Editorship of this book was undertaken with several goals in mind. First, I wanted to present an organized summary of the many types of disturbances that impact the earth, with as global a focus as the existing literature allowed....

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  • Two characteristic features define a cancer: unregulated cell growth and tissue invasion/metastasis. Unregulated cell growth without invasion is a feature of benign neoplasms, or new growths. Cancer is a synonym for malignant neoplasm. Cancers of epithelial tissues are called carcinomas; cancers of nonepithelial (mesenchymal) tissues are called sarcomas. Cancers arising from hematopoietic or lymphoid cells are called leukemias or lymphomas. Cancer is a genetic disease.

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  • Despite occupying only three percent of the earth’s surface, the ASEAN region hosts 20 percent of all known species that live deep in the region’s mountains, jungles, rivers, lakes and seas. The region includes three mega-diverse states (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines); several bio-geographical units (e.g., Malesia, Wallacea, Sundaland, Indo-Burma and the Central Indo-Pacific); and numerous centers of concentration of restricted-range bird, plant and insect species.

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  • a-enolase (ENOA) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the synthesis of pyru-vate. It also acts as a plasminogen receptor and thus mediates activation of plasmin and extracellular matrix degradation. In tumor cells, EMOAis upregulated and supports anaerobic proliferation (Warburg effect), it is expressed at the cell surface, where it promotes cancer invasion

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  • Monoclonal antibodies are the type of biological therapy used for lymphoma. They are proteins made in the lab that can bind to cancer cells. They help the immune system kill lymphoma cells. People receive this treatment through a vein at the doctor’s office, clinic, or hospital. Flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, weakness, and nausea may occur. Most side effects are easy to treat. Rarely, a person may have more serious side effects, such as breathing problems, low blood pressure, or severe skin rashes.

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  • Spinal fusion remains at the center of many reconstructive procedures of the spine. However, several new concepts have recently emerged, which led many spine surgeons to rethink traditional approaches to common clinical problems.

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  • The Rho-like GTPase Rac regulates distinct actin cytoskeleton changes required for adhesion, migration and invasion of cells. Tiam1 specifically activates Rac, and Rac has been shown to affect several signaling pathways in a partly cell-type-specific manner. Recently, we demonstrated that Rac activation inhibits Matrigel invasion of human carcinoma cells by tran-scriptional upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1.

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  • The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) has been implicated in signal transduction and biological processes including cancer metastasis, angiogenesis, cell migration, and wound healing. It is a specific cell surface receptor for its ligand uPA, which catalyzes the formation of plasmin from plasminogen, thereby activating the proteolytic cascade that contributes to the breakdown of extracellular matrix, a key step in cancer metastasis.

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