Biological macromolecules

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  • International Tables for Crystallography, Volume F, Crystal- lography of Biological Macromolecules, was commissioned by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) in recognition of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macro- molecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a whole cell.

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  • Physical chemistry of macromolecules is a course that is frequently offered in the biochemistry curriculum of a college or university. Occasionally, it is also offered in the chemistry curriculum. When it is offered in the biochemistry curriculum, the subject matter is usually limited to biological topics and is identical to biophysical chemistry. When it is offered in the chemistry curriculum, the subject matter is often centered around synthetic polymers and the course is identical to physical polymer chemistry.

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  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a complex organization of macromolecules that surrounds the cell and comprises the substratum onto which the cell may be attached. The properties and functions of the ECM depend ultimately on its structure, molecular components, architecture, and dynamic modulation. Because the critical role of ECM involved in cell biology and physiology has long been recognized, the structure and biology of the ECM have been extensively studied (Yurchenco and Birk 1994 ; Ayad et al. 1998 ; Robert 2001 ) .

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  • After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know what are the most abundant elements in biological systems; know the structures of the commonly occurring organic compounds, functional groups and linkages found in biochemical compounds; know the monomer, polymer and supramolecular structural relationships of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates; know the major differences between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; know the major functions associated with the different organelles and cellular compartments of eukaryotic cells.

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  • Chapter 5 - The structure and function of macromolecules. After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: List the four major classes of biomolecules, explain how organic polymers contribute to biological diversity, describe how covalent linkages are formed and broken in organic polymers,...

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers; Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material; Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules.

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  • Chapter 3 - Macromolecules and the origin of life. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What kinds of molecules characterize living things? What are the chemical structures and functions of proteins? What are the chemical structures and functions of carbohydrates? What are the chemical structures and functions of lipids? What are the chemical structures and functions of nucleic acids? How did life on earth begin?

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  • After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: List the features of carbon that result in the diversity of organic molecules, tell how macromolecules are assembled and disassembled, name the most common 5 and 6-carbon sugars and give a function for each, compare the structures of starch, glycogen, and cellulose and give a function for each,...

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  • Biomimetics is the science of emulating nature’s design. In nature, living organisms synthesize mineralized tissues and this process of biomineralization is under strict biological control. It involves the interactions of several biological macromolecules among themselves and with the mineral components. Generally, natures design principles are based on a “Bott om-Up” strategy. Such processes lead to the formation of hierarchically structured organic-inorganic composites with mechanical properties optimized for a given function.

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  • Bioinformatics is an emerging and rapidly growing area of science. Not sur- prisingly, there is tremendous lag time between the state of knowledge and the publication of manuals for those who need to fathom the basic knowledge and apply it in problem solving. Mr. Rashidi and Dr. Buehler have found a way to address these needs. Their book provides excellent, timely, and easy- to-understand information and advice for those without a great...

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  • Proteins are the driving force for all cellular processes. They regulate several cellular events through binding to different partners in the cell. They are capable of binding to other proteins, peptides, DNA, and also RNA. These interactions are essential in the regulation of cell fates and could be important in drugs development. For example RNA interacting proteins regulate gene expression through the binding to different mRNAs. These mRNAs could be involved in important cellular processes such as cell survival or apoptosis.

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  • In this study, structural features of Tricholoma matsutake polysaccharide (TMP-A) were investigated by a combination of infrared (IR) spectra, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that TMP-A had a backbone of 1,4-- d-glucopyranose residue which branches at O-6 based on the experimental results. The branches were mainly composed of an (1→3)--d-galactopyranose residue, and terminated with -d-xylopyranose residue.

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  • Membranes serve a number of essential cellular functions. They constitute the boundaries of cells and intracellular organelles, and they provide a surface where many important biological reactions and processes occur. Membranes have proteins that mediate and regulate the transport of metabolites, macromolecules, and ions.

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  • Electrokinetics is a subject that has been at the core of numerous fundamental advancements in the field of colloid science for over a century. Electrokinetics is a self-contained body of science that has led to spectacular applications in separations, characterization of surface properties, manipulation of colloidal materials, and facilitation of fluid transport in microchannels. For instance, electrophoresis is one of the common techniques for separation of biological macromolecules (such as proteins).

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  • NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structure, function and dynamics of biological macromolecules. However, non-spectroscopists often find NMR theory daunting and data interpretation nontrivial. As the first of two back-to-back reviews on NMR spectroscopy aimed at non-spectroscopists

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  • Membranes have proteins that mediate and regulate the transport of metabolites, macromolecules, and ions. Hormones and many other biological signal molecules and regulatory agents exert their effects via interactions with membranes. Photosynthesis, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, muscle contraction, and electrical activity all depend on membranes and membrane proteins. What are the properties and characteristics of biological membranes that account for their broad influence on cellular processes and transport?

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  • Service de Conformation des Macromolécules Biologiques, Centre de Biologie Structurale et Bioinformatique, CP 263, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bld du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium. †Institut Pasteur, Unité d'Expression des Gènes Eucaryotes, Institut Pasteur, rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. Correspondence: Shoshana J Wodak. E-mail: shosh@ucmb.ulb.ac.be reviews Published: 30 April 2004 Genome Biology 2004, 5:R33 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.com/2004/5/5/R33...

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  • Vitamin E is an important topic because many benefits and some risks have been attributed to it when used as a nutritional supplement. Moreover, there has been considerable progress in the basic science of this vitamin in recent years. This volume reviews recent aspects of the biochemistry and molecular biology of this vitamin, associated macromolecules, metabolism of the vitamin and its derivatives, and its many roles in health and disease. The various contributions comprising this volume are listed here in the order in which they are presented in the volume....

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  • Soon after the first sequences of proteins and nucleic acids became available for comparative analysis, it became apparent that they can play a key role for reconstructing the evolution of life. The availability of the sequence of several proteins prompted the birth of the field of molecular evolution, which aims at both the reconstruction of the biochemical history of life and the understanding of the mechanisms of evolution at the molecular level through the analysis of the macromolecules of existing organisms.

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