Biological products

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  • Biofuels Engineering Process Technology has many contents: Harvesting Energy from Biochemical Reactions, Microbial Modeling of Biofuel Production, Biofuel Feedstocks, Ethanol Production, Biodiesel, Biological Production of Hydrogen, Microbial Fuel Cells.

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  • Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[1] Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

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  • The art of compliance is a craft much like that of a carpenter who learns to work with various kinds of wood and designs. Ours is an industry wrought with differences. While the regulations that govern FDA-regulated industries are proscribed, how the regulations are interpreted and applied really depends on experience and how well one has mastered the craft of compliance. There are no proscribed procedures, but there are guideposts common to all FDA-regulated industries, whether a firm manufactures medical devices, pharmaceuticals, or biological products....

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  • Developmental biology: The anatomical tradition The Questions of Developmental Biology Anatomical Approaches to Developmental Biology Comparative Embryology Evolutionary Embryology Medical Embryology and Teratology Mathematical Modeling of Development Principles of Development:

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  • Synthetic polymers fulfill many functions in biotechnology and medicine. In cell culture technology and tissue engineering they provide the surfaces to which cells may attach. Cross-linked polymer networks are used for drug delivery and cell encapsulation. Polymer-based porous membranes can be used to shield implanted cells from the immune system of the host, while allowing for the exchange of nutrients and metabolic waste products thus keeping the cells alive and functioning.

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  • Conversely, modern biological sciences (including even concepts such as molecular ecology) are intimately entwined and dependent on the methods developed through biotechnology and what is commonly thought of as the life sciences industry.

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  • The pharmaceutical industry manufactures biological products, medicinal chemicals, botanical products, and the pharmaceutical products covered by Standard Industrial Classification Code Numbers 2831, 2833, and 2834, as well as other commodities. The industry is characterized by a diversity of products, processes, plant sizes, as well as wastewater quantity and quality. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry represents a range of industries with operations and processes as diverse as its products.

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  • Targeting BCR-ABL with Imatinib: Proof of Principle The protein product of the Philadelphia chromosome occurs in all patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and in ~30% of patients with adult acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and encodes the fusion protein Bcr-Abl. Although the c-Abl protooncogene is a nuclear protein whose kinase activity is tightly regulated as a part of the DNA damage response pathway (and actually induces growth arrest), the Bcr-Abl fusion protein is largely cytoplasmic with a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase domain.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 107. Transfusion Biology and Therapy Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes.

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  • This Report addresses in considerable detail the consequences of hot particles on and near the skin, in the eye, ear, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. Limits for exposures from hot particles are recommended. If exposures are maintained below the recommended limits, few, if any, deterministic biological effects are expected to be observed, and those effects would be transient in nature. If effects from a hot-particle exposure are observed, the result is an easily treated medical condition involving an extraordinarily small stochastic risk.

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  • For many years obesity in rodents has been known to be caused by a number of distinct mutations distributed through the genome. Most of these singlegene mutations cause both hyperphagia and diminished energy expenditure, suggesting a physiologic link between these two parameters of energy homeostasis. Identification of the ob gene mutation in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice represented a major breakthrough in the field. The ob/ob mouse develops severe obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperphagia, as well as efficient metabolism (e.g.

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  • Cushing's Syndrome Although obese patients commonly have central obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, they lack other specific stigmata of Cushing's syndrome (Chap. 336). Nonetheless, a potential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome is often entertained. Cortisol production and urinary metabolites (17OH steroids) may be increased in simple obesity.

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  • Signaling Pathways Downstream of Rtks: Ras and PI3K Several oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene products are components of signal transduction pathways that emanate from RTK activation (Fig. 80-2). The most extensively studied are the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, both of which regulate multiple processes in cancer cells, including cell cycle progression, resistance to apoptotic signals, angiogenesis, and cell motility.

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  • Oncogene Addiction and Synthetic Lethality The concepts of oncogene addiction and synthetic lethality have spurred new drug development targeting oncogene and tumor-suppressor pathways. As discussed earlier in this chapter and outlined in Fig. 80-3, cancer cells become physiologically dependent upon signaling pathways containing activated oncogenes; this can effect proliferation (i.e.

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  • This book contains a wealth of useful information on current research on viscoelasticity. By covering a broad variety of rheology, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and viscoelasticity-related topics, this book is addressed to a wide spectrum of academic and applied researchers and scientists but it could also prove useful to industry specialists. The subject areas include, theory, simulations, biological materials and food products among others.

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  • Developing the biomass resource base for industrial sector applications requires a reliable supplyof feedstockandprocessing technologies thatareadapted to these feedstocks.Both quantityandqualityoffeedstockhaverelevance,whilethegeographicalandphysicalstructure oftheresourcegenerallydeterminesthespatialextentofmarketdevelopment.Afewexamples here serve to illustrate the alternative resource development paths.

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  • A central pathway through which leptin acts to regulate appetite and body weight. Leptin signals through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus to induce increased production of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), requiring the processing enzyme PC-1 (proenzyme convertase 1). α-MSH acts as an agonist on melanocortin-4 receptors to inhibit appetite, and the neuropeptide AgRp (Agouti-related peptide) acts as an antagonist of this receptor. Mutations that cause obesity in humans are indicated by the solid green arrows.

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  • Glutaminase from Micrococcus luteusK-3 [Micrococcusglutaminase (Mglu); 456 amino acid residues (aa); 48 kDa] is a salt-tolerant enzyme. Our previous study determined the structure of its major 42-kDa fragment. Here, using new crystallization conditions, we determined the structures of the intact enzyme in the presence and absence of its product l-glutamate and its activator Tris, which activates the enzyme by sixfold.

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  • Tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) is a key mediator of inflammation in host defence against infection and in autoimmune disease. Its production is controlled post-transcriptionally by multiple RNA-binding proteins that interact with the TNF-aAU-rich element and regulate its expression; one of these is Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1).

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  • The production of H2O2 by isolated mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of mitochondrial superoxide formation. Matrix superoxide dismu-tase quantitatively converts matrix superoxide to H2O2. However, matrix enzymes such as the glutathione peroxidases can consume H2O2 and com-pete with efflux of H2O2 , causing an underestimation of superoxide produc-tion.

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