Despite massive efforts in drug discovery fueled by combinatory
chemistry, recombinant DNA technology, and highthroughput
screening, surprisingly few molecules make it
through the drug development process. While the reasons
are debated, it is certain that many new chemical entities
(NCEs) suffer from recurring problems that hinder development—
low water solubility, instability, or inadequate
pharmacokinetics. An estimated 43% of NCEs are poorly
There is, of course, some potential overlap within these sub‐sectors, and some activities could fall
within more than one of the three main categories. For example, Additional Energy Sources could
potentially fall within the Renewable Energy sector, but has been include within Emerging Low Carbon
because it includes mainly new energy sources and those that are still in development (such as
hydrogen fuel cells).
In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake
a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members
of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for
research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems
in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as
we become a spacefaring people.
Ovarian cancer can no longer be considered one disease entity, but a heterogeneous group
of diseases. Our understanding of its clinical and molecular complexity is improving nota‐
bly over the last decade. This is of utmost importance when it comes to determine the most
adequate treatment strategy for each individual patient. Despite not being the most frequent
tumor, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst gynecological cancers.
The accurate identfication of breast abnormalities has been correlated with
a longer breast examination time. Chapter 18 reviews management of breast
problems. Although practice varies widely and is often influenced by staff
availability, for medicolegal purposes many recommend that another member
of the medical team be present during the breast examination as well as for
the pelvic and rectal examinations. The rationale is to prevent sexual miscon-
duct by the examiner or charges of the same....
According to Barthes it is especially the mechanical and thus objective status
of photographic depiction – the photograph as a non-coded message – that
enhances the myth of naturalness, because by its tight coupling with the depict-
ed world it naturalises the symbolic layers of meaning. Furthermore, it is on the
level of style that human interventions manifest themselves and a shift from the
natural to the culturally coded occurs, thus triggering another layer of mean-
ing. It was this notion of style that Barthes (2004: 47) described as the ‘third’
or ‘obtuse’ meaning.
Chapter 14 - Prokaryotic and organelle genetics. This chapter begins with a discussion of the origins of yeast mitochondrial work. It then discusses the development of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. It also shows how early work on the organelle genetics of Chlamydomonas and yeast were carried out relatively independently; but inevitably the rationales soon paralleled one another.
This field started for me in 1987 with a bioelectromagnetics
instrument design portfolio that eventually comprised AC and DC
gaussmeters, geomagnetometers, electrostatic and ion current
meters, ELF spectrum analyzers, and a Dental Vapor Ionizer. I was
privileged to exchange viewpoints with Dr. Robert O. Becker about
the possibility of measuring a brain’s magnetoencephalogram
(MEG) with off-the-shelf high-gain amplifier chips and of course,
the effect of the earth’s Schumann resonance on brain waves....
The urgent need to ensure the conservation of biological diversity is now
widely recognised, but the role of an intellectual property rights regime as
an instrument for biodiversity conservation is poorly understood and often
hotly debated. This volume is a detailed analysis of the economic and
scientific rationales for the use of a property rights-based approach to
biodiversity conservation. It discusses the justification for, and implemen-
tation of, intellectual property rights regimes as incentive systems to
Ban tổ chức cảm ơn sự tham gia của Nhóm làm việc BioIniative cho tính toàn vẹn của họ và lòng can đảm trí tuệ trong việc đối phó với chủ đề gây tranh cãi và quan trọng, và dành thời gian và năng lượng để sản xuất chương của họ. Các thông tin và kết luận trong mỗi chương là trách nhiệm của các tác giả của chương đó.
The idea for The Phylogenetic Handbook was conceived during an early edition of
theWorkshop on Virus Evolution andMolecular Epidemiology. The rationale was
simple: to collect the information being taught in the workshop and turn it into
a comprehensive, yet simply written textbook with a strong practical component.
Marco and Annemie took up this challenge, and, with the help of many experts in
the field, successfully produced the First Edition in 2003.