Biological responses

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  • As a scientist who has worked for more than 40 years to find cures for infectious disease, I find the idea that terrorists would use biological agents as a weapon to be anathema. It violates the fundamental values of the life sciences that I and my colleagues hold dear: that science is a vital tool for improving life and the health of our planet and enhancing our understanding of the natural world. My own work has focused on cholera, a disease responsible for the death of thousands of people around the world every year.

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  • This book is a response to that need for a synthesis. It contains 17 chapters, each prepared by authors who are internation- ally recognized for their knowledge and expertise in a particular area of soil/plant biology.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 67. Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine: Introduction Organ damage and the resultant inflammatory responses initiate a series of repair processes, including stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, often in combination with angiogenesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem cells in tissues such as liver and skin have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organs, whereas heart and brain have a much more limited capability for self-repair.

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  • Strategies for Stem Cell Replacement Stem cell transplantation is not a new concept and it is already part of established medical practice. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (Chap. 68) are responsible for the long-term repopulation of all blood elements in bone marrow transplant recipients. HSC transplantation is now the gold standard against which other stem cell transplantation therapies will be measured. Transplantation of differentiated cells is also a clinical reality, as donated organs (e.g., liver, kidney) and tissues (i.e.

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  • Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

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  • Figure 80-1 Induction of p53 by the DNA damage and oncogene checkpoints. In response to noxious stimuli, p53 and mdm2 are phosphorylated by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and related ATR serine/threonine kinases, as well as the immediated downstream checkpoint kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This causes dissociation of p53 from mdm2, leading to increased p53 protein levels and transcription of genes leading to cell cycle arrest (p21Cip1/Waf1) or apoptosis (e.g., the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa and Puma).

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  • Immune-Mediated Reactions Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions Immune-mediated hemolysis occurs when the recipient has preformed antibodies that lyse donor erythrocytes. The ABO isoagglutinins are responsible for the majority of these reactions, although alloantibodies directed against other RBC antigens, i.e., Rh, Kell, and Duffy, may result in hemolysis. Acute hemolytic reactions may present with hypotension, tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, chills, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, chest and/or flank pain, and discomfort at the infusion site.

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  • In 2006 the Royal Society, in cooperation with the International Council for Science, the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (now the IAP—the Global Network of Science Academies) and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, organized a workshop that surveyed trends in science and technology (S&T). The objective was to provide an independent contribution from the international scientific community to the 6th Review Conference of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) that was held in December of that year. ...

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  • In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as we become a spacefaring people.

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  • Targeting BCR-ABL with Imatinib: Proof of Principle The protein product of the Philadelphia chromosome occurs in all patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and in ~30% of patients with adult acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and encodes the fusion protein Bcr-Abl. Although the c-Abl protooncogene is a nuclear protein whose kinase activity is tightly regulated as a part of the DNA damage response pathway (and actually induces growth arrest), the Bcr-Abl fusion protein is largely cytoplasmic with a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase domain.

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  • Having a vision, a mission, and a passion are invariably seen as conditions for success. The 1995 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) concept of a Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) demonstrated that the leaders of DHHS had a vision for an effective response to a mass-casualty terrorism incident with a weapon of mass destruction. The mission was to expand the experimental model of the Metropolitan Medical Strike Team (MMST) established in Washington, D.C., and neighboring counties into a national program.

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  • Stress protein responses have evolved in part as a mechanism to protect cells from the toxic effects of environmental damaging agents. Oesophageal squamous epithelial cells have evolved an atypical stress response that results in the synthesis of a 53 kDa protein of undefined function named squamous epithelial-induced stress protein of 53 kDa (SEP53).

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  • Cushing's Syndrome Although obese patients commonly have central obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, they lack other specific stigmata of Cushing's syndrome (Chap. 336). Nonetheless, a potential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome is often entertained. Cortisol production and urinary metabolites (17OH steroids) may be increased in simple obesity.

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  • Signaling Pathways Downstream of Rtks: Ras and PI3K Several oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene products are components of signal transduction pathways that emanate from RTK activation (Fig. 80-2). The most extensively studied are the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, both of which regulate multiple processes in cancer cells, including cell cycle progression, resistance to apoptotic signals, angiogenesis, and cell motility.

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  • Celiac Disease (CD) or Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy (GSE) is a life‐long disorder. It is characterized by inflammation in the small intestine of genetically predisposed individuals caused by inappropriate immune response to gluten, a protein enriched in some of our common grains (wheat, rye and barley). The toxicity of gluten is manifested by the autoimmune action of T‐lymphocytes on mucosal cells in the small intestine, disrupting its vital function of absorbing nutrients from food.

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  • The debate on climate change has shifted dramatically in recent years. There is now unequivocal scientifi c evidence – summarised in the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – that global warming is happening; that human actions are responsible; and that this poses an enormous threat to life on Earth. Politicians, businesses and the public are increasingly aware of the problem and are calling for urgent action to cut the man-made emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that cause climate change, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2)....

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  • NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for ap- propriate balance.

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  • Organisms subject to changing environmental conditions or experimental protocols show complex patterns of responses. The design principles behind these patterns are still poorly understood. Here, modular metabolic control analysis is developed to deal with large changes in branched pathways.

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  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in mediating pathogen responses and reactive oxygen species signaling. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four major groups (A–D). Previous stud-ies have mainly focused on groups A and B, but little is known about group C.

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  • The purpose of this book is to investigate the medical interactions which occur between a variety of healthcare professionals and women who have experienced domestic violence. This relates specifically to the medical profession as opposed to other professionals who are accessed as part of wider help-seeking activities.

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