Xem 1-20 trên 118 kết quả Biological risk
  • Biological Risk Engineering — Infection Control and Decontamination provides a compendium of biological risk management information. Biological risk is of concern to us all. The biological risks we face vary and include biological contamination within our environment and, more personally, biological risk to ourselves through disease or the potential for disease. This book deals with a subset of biological risk agents defined as bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses, and prions. The term biologicals refers to these agents.

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  • From microorganisms to whales, from single cells to complex organisms, from plants to animals to fungi, from body plans to behavior, the diversity of life is amazing. Living organisms have a profound impact on our physical world of ocean, landscape, and climate; around us is a multitude of diverse ecosystems that provide a livable environment and many valuable resources. The study of life—biology—is a multifaceted endeavor that uses observation, exploration, and experiments to gather information and test hypotheses about topics ranging from climate change to stem cells.

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  • In recent years, completion of the sequencing of the human genome as well as the genomes of dozens of other organisms and subsequent development of tools for comprehensive analysis of other cellular constituents have revolutionized biology. These new technologies, referred to broadly as “genomics,” have integrated biologic sciences with information sciences and engineering.

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  • The book Recent Advances in the Biology, Therapy and Management of Melanoma brings up-to-date information regarding a number of aspects which culminate in illuminating potential targets in the fight against melanoma. This book is intended to be a reference book for both the scientific and clinical communities and brings complicated subject matter together in an easy, readable way. Undoubtedly fundamental scientific understanding has to then be translated to the clinic in order for us to make significant strides in eradicating melanoma.

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  • Other Hepatitis Viruses Hepatitis A virus is rarely transmitted by transfusion; infection is typically asymptomatic and does not lead to chronic disease. Other transfusion-transmitted viruses—TTV, SEN-V, and GBV-C—do not cause chronic hepatitis or other disease states. Routine testing does not appear to be warranted. West Nile Virus Transfusion-transmitted WNV infections were documented in 2002. This RNA virus can be detected using NAT; routine screening began in 2003, and more than 1000 blood donors have tested positive.

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  • Alternatives to Transfusion Alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusions that avoid homologous donor exposures with attendant immunologic and infectious risks remain attractive. Autologous blood is the best option when transfusion is anticipated. However, the cost:benefit ratio of autologous transfusion remains high. No transfusion is a zerorisk event; clerical errors and bacterial contamination remain potential complications even with autologous transfusions.

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  • Nonimmunologic Reactions Fluid Overload Blood components are excellent volume expanders, and transfusion may quickly lead to volume overload. Monitoring the rate and volume of the transfusion and using a diuretic can minimize this problem. Hypothermia Refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (–18°C or below) blood components can result in hypothermia when rapidly infused. Cardiac dysrhythmias can result from exposing the sinoatrial node to cold fluid. Use of an in-line warmer will prevent this complication.

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  • Agricultural biotechnology offers great promise for Africa and tissue culture and marker-assisted selection are already in widespread use across the continent. However, the safe application of these technologies requires functioning biosafety systems. The report focuses on the special issues related to biosafety in Africa.Crops can be improved by conventional breeding, by tissue culture and by marker-aided selection. But for many improvements - such as drought and salinity tolerance - GM technology is going to be essential.

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  • The public demand for the protection of human and environmental health has led to the establishment of toxicology as the science of the action of chemicals on biological systems. Toxicological research is focused presently very much on the elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity and the application of this knowledge in safety evaluation and risk assessment.

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  • Ten years ago when I wrote the foreword to the first edition of this book, the concept of women’s health was changing at a rapid pace. The focus was just shifting from solely reproductive issues and biological factors, to an expanded perception that women’s health encompasses biological, familial, cultural, economic, emotional, psychological, and behavioral elements of each woman and her sociopolitical environment, beyond just the reproductive organs and across her entire lifespan.

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  • Therefore, ex vivo expansion of BMSCs is required to obtain a sufficient number of transplantable cells. Since BMSCs require several kinds of supportive factors for their growth, it is standard practice to use fetal bovine serum (FBS), while autologous human serum (HS) and pooled allogeneic HS have also been used. It has been suggested that FBS may not be favorable for clinical applications due to the possible risk of contamination (prions, viruses, zoonosis) or immunological reactions against xenogeneic serum antigens (Agata et al., 2009).

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  • The most compelling and credible testimony to biotech crops is that during the 16 year period 1996 to 2011, millions of farmers in 29 countries worldwide, elected to make more than 100 million independent decisions to plant and replant an accumulated hectarage of more than 1.25 billion hectares – an area 25% larger than the total land mass of the US or China – there is one principal and overwhelming reason that underpins the trust and confidence of risk-averse farmers in biotechnology – biotech crops deliver substantial, and sustainable, socio-economic and environmental benefits.

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  • The long-term approach to achieving protection is “ecological separation.” A true ecological separation is defined as no inter-basin transfer of aquatic organisms via the Chicago Waterway System at any time – 100% effectiveness. Ecological separation prohibits the movement or interbasin transfer of aquatic organisms between the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins via the CWS. Once established, the impacts of invasive species on ecosystem health are permanent and irreversible.

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  • Consequences of agitation include self-extubation, removal of IV catheters, dyssynchrony with mechanical ventilation, and, perhaps, a long-term risk of psychiatric problems, such as delirium and posttraumatic stress disorder can be prevented by a proper sedation. Prolonged and excessive sedation are problematic too, interfering with weaning from mechanical ventilation and leading to increased rates of nosocomial pneumonia, prolonged ICU stays, and difficulty identifying new problems, such as myocardial infarction or stroke....

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  • In the editors’ preface to the fourth edition it was noted that there was good news and there was bad news. It is the same for this, the fifth edition. One suspects that this will always be the case. The 2004 Nobel Prize for Peace has been awarded to Professor Dr. Wangari Maathai. Dr. Maathai’s award was based on her efforts on behalf of conservation and women’s rights. These efforts were made at great personal risk. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by the requisite number of countries.

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  • The Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 requires the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets (PWG) to perform an analysis regarding the long- term availability and affordability of insurance for terrorism risk, including group life coverage; and coverage for chemical, nuclear, biological, and radiological events; and to submit a report of its findings to Congress by September 30, 2006.

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  • Luật pháp và các quy định hiện đang có sẵn để giải quyết một số khía cạnh rủi ro sinh học. Công nghiệp hướng dẫn, quyết định nhà cung cấp dịch vụ bảo hiểm, chính phủ và các văn bản hướng dẫn bổ sung quy định. Quy định không được hệ thống hóa như được nêu ra nhiều rủi ro sinh học kết hợp với các tòa nhà và chất lượng không khí trong nhà. Tiêu chuẩn công nghiệp là nguồn thông tin chính như các khuyến nghị.

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  • Cục Quản lý An toàn và Sức khỏe nghề nghiệp đã được quy định những gì một người sử dụng lao động phải làm gì để ngăn chặn hoặc giảm thiểu tiếp xúc nghề nghiệp tại nơi làm việc của người sử dụng lao động. Trong các văn bản sau đây, OSHA đề nghị 1910.1035 quản lý văn bản và lời mở đầu báo cáo được khám phá. Bất cứ khi nào có thể, cuộc thảo luận này ngay lập tức trước văn bản CDC.

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  • A clustering of the disease among close relatives has also been shown, although there is no consensus on which inheritable genetic defects are involved. In spite of extensive research, reliable findings on risk factors relating to lifestyle, diet or the environment remain elusive. Possible lifestyle risk factors are high intakes of α-linolenic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid in vegetables and dairy products) and calcium.

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  • Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect and utilise natural resources, control environmental pollution, improve environmental quality to enable healthy ecosystems and comfortable habitation of humans. It is based on multiple disciplines including geology, hydrology, biology, chemistry, physics, medicine, engineering, management, economics, law, etc.

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