As you worked your way through high school, or otherwise worked to prepare
yourself for college, you were probably unaware that an information
explosion was taking place in the field of biology. This explosion, brought on
by advances in biotechnology and communicated by faster, more powerful
computers, has allowed scientists to gather data more quickly and disseminate
data to colleagues in the global scientific community with the click of a
This Handbook has been designed to assist students as well as professionals in the
behavioral and biological sciences to understand and apply the principles and methods
of experimental research. The Handbook is comprehensive but is written in a concise,
outline format. This allows a considerable amount of material to be presented in an explicit,
compact form that facilitates the perception and understanding of the hierarchical and
parallel relationships among concepts. As a result, learning, retrieving, and applying the
information should be greatly enhanced....
Chapter 1 - Introduction: Themes in the study of life. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences; distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesis-based science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology.
The past decade has seen the field of proteomics expand from a highly technical endeavor to a widely utilized technique. The objective of this book is to highlight the ways in which proteomics is currently being employed to address issues in the biological sciences. Although there have been significant advances in techniques involving the utilization of proteomics in biology, fundamental approaches involving basic sample visualization and protein identification still represent the principle techniques used by the vast majority of researchers to solve problems in biology.
Immediately after the first drafts of the human genome sequence were reported almost
a decade ago, the importance of genomics and functional genomics studies became
well recognized across the broad disciplines of biological sciences research.
Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience
broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The au-
thor and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable
in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with
the standards accepted at the time of publication.
The Workshop on Energy and Transportation took place on January 7-9,
2002, in Washington, DC. This workshop was the second in a series of workshops
that comprise the study Challenges in the Chemical Sciences in the 21st
Century. The purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of the current status
of the chemical sciences, including chemistry and chemical engineering, and its
interfaces with other disciplines such as mechanical engineering, physics, materials
science, and the biological sciences.
Cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behaviors, interactions, and environment. This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology....
During the past two decades, reductionist biological science has generated new
empirical data on the molecular foundations of biological structure and function
at an accelerating rate. The list of organisms whose complete genomes have been
sequenced is growing by the week. Annotations of these sequences are becoming
more comprehensive, and databases of protein structure are growing at impressive,
indeed formerly unimaginable rates.
The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) was established in 1958 with
the mission to improve the quality of biology education at all levels. Not long
after the inception of the organization, our mission was expanded to include the
improvement of science education, not just biology education. In 2000, we further
articulated this mission to describe the work we would do in curriculum develop-
ment, professional development, and research and evaluation.
This book is based on a course that I have been teaching for the past several years to
first year graduate students in the biological sciences at Duke University. These stu-
dents have not studied physical chemistry as undergraduates and typically have not
had more than a year of calculus. Many faculty believe that an understanding of the
principles of physical chemistry is important for all students in the biological sciences,
and this course ...
Conversely, modern biological sciences (including even concepts such as molecular ecology) are intimately entwined and dependent on the methods developed through biotechnology and what is commonly thought of as the life sciences industry.
Almost since their inception, the natural sciences, those fields that use the scientific
method to study nature, have been divided into two branches: the biological
sciences and the physical sciences. In part, this division can be viewed as a convenient
social contrivance. However, over time it has also served more functional
purposes. Physical scientists, when seeking the fundamental laws, have found it
necessary to focus on the simplest of systems—elementary particles, atoms, and
molecules—items clearly not alive.
Current Progress in Biological Research presents new insights into key topics from different areas of the biological sciences. Some of the topics covered in the book are antibiotic susceptibility, genomic rearrangement, historical biogeography, biogeographic patterns, endemism and the use of microorganisms for pest control. The book is an interesting collection of 16 original research articles written by respected experts in their fields. It is hoped that readers will be stimulated and challenged by the contents of this book....
Lecture Biology - Chapter 17: Genome sequencing, molecular biology, and medicine. The topics discussed in this chapter are: How do defective proteins lead to diseases? What kinds of DNA changes lead to diseases? How does genetic screening detect diseases? What is cancer? How are genetic diseases treated? What have we learned from the human genome project?
Since their publication in 1996, the National
Science Education Standards (NSES) have been
at the center of the science education reform
movement in the United States. Prior to that
time, the National Science Foundation, other
government agencies, and private foundations
had supported the development of a plethora of
curricula and approaches to instruction; these
led to such R&D organizations as the Biological
Sciences Curriculum Study, the Chemical Bond
Approach, and the Physical Science Study
This lecture introduces you to studying life. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is biology? How is all life on earth related? How do biologists investigate life? How does biology influence public policy?
This first research project deals with the Human Genome Project, the genetic sequencing exercise of humanity. An extraordinary international project of biological science will add new, and undo old, knowledge about our evolution as a species. ’It is, though, a controversial subject, and we thought we would start in two phases. Dr Jeff Lever’s paper published here worries aloud whether we teach evolutionary theory properly and with sufficient depth to pupils and scholars at our schools.
Chapter 2 - The chemical context of life. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Identify the four major elements; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: neutron and proton, atomic number and mass number, atomic weight and mass number; distinguish between and discuss the biological importance of the following: nonpolar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions.