Biological significance

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  • This book is intended to be a presentation of alkaloids from chemical, biological and ecological points of view. It is a text for chemists, biologists and ecologists alike. However, the intended audience of this work is not limited to scientists, teachers and other present and future specialists. In fact, I wrote this book because I felt the need for it as a university educator and as a scientific enthusiast on the subject.

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  • The past decade has seen the field of proteomics expand from a highly technical endeavor to a widely utilized technique. The objective of this book is to highlight the ways in which proteomics is currently being employed to address issues in the biological sciences. Although there have been significant advances in techniques involving the utilization of proteomics in biology, fundamental approaches involving basic sample visualization and protein identification still represent the principle techniques used by the vast majority of researchers to solve problems in biology.

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  • As a scientist who has worked for more than 40 years to find cures for infectious disease, I find the idea that terrorists would use biological agents as a weapon to be anathema. It violates the fundamental values of the life sciences that I and my colleagues hold dear: that science is a vital tool for improving life and the health of our planet and enhancing our understanding of the natural world. My own work has focused on cholera, a disease responsible for the death of thousands of people around the world every year.

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  • In this 3rd edition of Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology: PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, a significant number of changes and improvements have been made. This PreTest reviews all of the anatomical disciplines encompassing early embryology, cell biology, histology of the tissues and organs, as well as regional human anatomy of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and spine. This edition represents a comprehensive effort to integrate the anatomical disciplines with clinical scenarios and cases.

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  • Plants defend themselves from other organisms by elaborating bioactive chemical defences. This is the essential basis of the use of herbal medicines that still represents a major therapeutic resort for much of humanity However, at the outset, it must be stated that any plant that is not part of our evolved dietary cultures is potentially dangerous. Commercial herbal medicinal preparations approved by expert regulatory authorities have a significant place in mainstream conventional medicine and in complementary medicine.

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  • The bevacizumab experience suggests that inhibition of the VEGF pathway will be most efficacious when combined with agents that directly target tumor cells. This also appears to be the case in the development of small-molecule inhibitors (SMI) that target VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity but are also inhibitory to other kinases that are expressed by tumor cells and important for their proliferation and survival.

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  • Of the 600+ known proteases identified to date in mammals, a significant percentage is involved or implicated in pathogenic and cancer processes. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV) gene family, comprising four enzyme members [DPIV (EC 3.4.14.5), fibroblast activation protein, DP8 and DP9] and two nonenzyme members [DP6 (DPL1) and DP10 (DPL2)], are inter-esting in this regard because of their multiple diverse functions,

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  • Prevalence Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) show that the percent of the American adult population with obesity (BMI 30) has increased from 14.5% (between 1976 and 1980) to 30.5% (between 1999 and 2000). As many as 64% of U.S. adults ≥20 years of age were overweight (defined as BMI 25) between the years of 1999 and 2000. Extreme obesity (BMI ≥40) has also increased and affects 4.7% of the population. The increasing prevalence of medically significant obesity raises great concern.

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  • IgG molecules are exposed on a regular basis to acidic conditions during immunoaffinity purification procedures, as well as during the production of some therapeutic immunoglobulin preparations. This exposure is known to induce in them an antigen-binding polyreactivity. The molecular mecha-nisms and the possible biological significance of this phenomenon remain, however, poorly understood.

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  • This chapter list the derived traits for: chordates, craniates, vertebrates, gnathostomes, tetrapods, amniotes, birds, mammals, primates, humans; describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates; describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes; describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals;...

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  • Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation have recently emerged as an additional level of regulation of activated forms of Rho GTPases. To char-acterize this novel regulatory pathway and to gain insight into its biological significance, we studied the ubiquitination of two constitutively activated forms of Rac1, i.e.

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  • Chapter 34 introduce to vertebrates. This chapter list the derived traits for: chordates, craniates, vertebrates, gnathostomes, tetrapods, amniotes, birds, mammals, primates, humans; describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates; describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes; describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals;...

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  • For much of history, few things have mattered more to humans than their relations with soil. This is evidenced by a rich historical literature on aspects of soil management and soil fertility, dating back to texts of ancient civilizations of the Middle East, the Mediterranean, China, and India (see McNeill and Winiwarter 2004).

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  • Steroids - From Physiology to Clinical Medicine covers contemporary basic science on steroids research, along with steroids practical application in clinical medicine. We start by describing physiological and pathophysiological roles of steroids, with reference to production and action of gonadal steroids, role of steroid sulfonation, sex specific and steroids-dependent mechanism of hippocampal function, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases for the modulation of tissue glucocorticoid availability.

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  • The technique can be applied for chlorophyll level monitoring in basic photosynthesis research, agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Abiotic stress (water deficit, salinity, heat, heavy metals soil contamination, intense light, etc) affects significantly crop growth and yield in agricultural areas all over the world. Thus, it is imperative to study their effect upon the crops and discriminate among abiotic stresses using new noninvasive and nondestructive remote sensing precision diagnostic techniques.

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  • Agricultural production resorts to the use of a varied and large quantity of insecticides to improve the production and preservation of foodstuff. Thus, the use of insecticides has increased rapidly and is now widespread. Beneficial insects like parasitoids pathogens, predators and pollinators have gained significance. IPM programs have demonstrated that current levels of pesticide use are not necessary in many situations and are frequently even counter-productive.

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  • Where the possibilities of a man reached the end, especially from the point of view of technical solutions, the nature took over and formed our environment according to its needs. Nowadays technical and engineering activities have a significantly greater impact on the natural laws and rules once considered as changeless. Nonetheless we have been approaching the same pattern that we followed in the past – we get inspired by the nature.

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  • The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).

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  • The last few years have witnessed tremendous changes in the syllabi of environmentally related courses at Advanced Level and in tertiary education. Moreover, there have been major alterations in the way degree and diploma courses are organised in colleges and universities. Syllabus changes reflect the increasing interest in environmental issues, their significance in a political context and their increasing relevance in everyday life.

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  • Legumes are important for the diet of a significant part of the world's population; they are a good source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The'importance of soybean'lies in the overall agriculture and trade and in its contribution to food supply. Soybean contains the highest protein content and has no cholesterol in comparison with conventional legume and animal food sources.

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