Biologically derived

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  • Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[1] Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 66. Stem Cell Biology Stem Cell Biology: Introduction Stem cell biology is a relatively new field that explores the characteristics and possible clinical applications of the different types of pluripotential cells that serve as the progenitors of more differentiated cell types. In addition to potential therapeutic applications (Chap. 67), patient-derived stem cells can also provide disease models and a means to test drug effectiveness.

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  • Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

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  • Numerous proteins cannot be sufficiently prepared by ordinary recombi-nant DNA techniques because they are unstable or have deleterious effects on the host cell. One idea to prepare such proteins is to produce them as protein inclusions. Here we developed a novel system to effectively prepare proteins by using peptide tags derived from the insecticidal Cry toxin of a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis.

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  • The Adipocyte and Adipose Tissue Adipose tissue is composed of the lipid-storing adipose cell and a stromal/vascular compartment in which cells including preadipocytes and macrophages reside. Adipose mass increases by enlargement of adipose cells through lipid deposition, as well as by an increase in the number of adipocytes. Obese adipose tissue is also characterized by increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages.

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  • Masaki Okumura1,2, Masatoshi Saiki2,3, Hiroshi Yamaguchi1 and Yuji Hidaka2 1 School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Hyogo, Japan 2 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan 3 Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, Japan Keywords arginine; disulfide; folding; glutathione; uroguanylin Correspondence Y.

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  • Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent blocker of angiogene-sis in vivo, and of endothelial cell migration and tubule formation, binds with high affinity to an as yet unknown protein on the surfaces of endothe-lial cells. Given that protein fingerprinting suggested a match of a 60 kDa PEDF-binding protein in bovine retina withBos taurusF1-ATP synthase b-subunit, and that F1Fo-ATP synthase components have been identified recently as cell-surface receptors, we examined the direct binding of PEDF to F1. ...

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  • Published: 16 April 2004 Genome Biology 2004, 5:R35 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at Received: 7 January 2004 Revised: 23 February 2004 Accepted: 4 March 2004 reports © 2004 Bowers et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL....

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  • Tham khảo sách 'the biology of happiness', công nghệ thông tin, kỹ thuật lập trình phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • In the present study, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 were identified from a constructed lung cDNA library of donkey (Equus asinus) as members of cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides, using a nested PCR-based cloning strategy. Composed of 25 and 26 residues, respectively, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 are smaller than most other cathelicidins and have no sequence homology to other cathelicidins identified to date.

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  • Apheresis technology is used for the collection of multiple units of platelets from a single donor. These single-donor apheresis platelets (SDAP) contain the equivalent of at least six units of RD platelets and have fewer contaminating leukocytes than pooled RD platelets. Plasma may also be collected by apheresis. Plasma derivatives such as albumin, intravenous immunoglobulin, antithrombin, and coagulation factor concentrates are prepared from pooled plasma from many donors and are treated to eliminate infectious agents.

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  • Prokaryotes, yeasts and plants synthesize thiamin (vitamin B1) via complex pathways. Animal cells capture the vitamin through specific high-affinity transporters essential for internal thiamin homeostasis. Inside the cells, thi-amin is phosphorylated to higher phosphate derivatives. Thiamin diphos-phate (ThDP) is the best-known thiamin compound because of its role as an enzymatic cofactor.

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  • The biological ion channel gramicidin A (gA) was modified by synthetic means to obtain the tail-to-tail linked asymmetric gA-derived dimer com-pound3. Single-channel current measurements for 3in planar lipid bilayers exhibit an Eisenman I ion selectivity for alkali cations. The structural asymmetry does not lead to an observable functional asymmetry. The structure of 3in solution without and with Cs cations was investigated by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. In CDCl3 ⁄CD3OH (1 : 1, v⁄v),3forms a mixture of double-strandedb-helices....

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  • Certain natural peptides and proteins of mammalian origin are able to bind and condense plasmid DNA, a prerequisite for the formation of transfec-tion-competent complexes that facilitate nonviral gene delivery. Here we have generated recombinant derivatives of the human high-mobility group (HMG) protein HMGB2 and investigated their potential as novel protein-based transfection reagents.

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  • Chapter 26 - Phylogeny and the tree of life. This chapter explain the justification for taxonomy based on a PhyloCode; explain the importance of distinguishing between homology and analogy; distinguish between the following terms: monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups; shared ancestral and shared derived characters; orthologous and paralogous genes; define horizontal gene transfer and explain how it complicates phylogenetic trees.

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  • Chapter 34 introduce to vertebrates. This chapter list the derived traits for: chordates, craniates, vertebrates, gnathostomes, tetrapods, amniotes, birds, mammals, primates, humans; describe the trends in mineralized structures in early vertebrates; describe and distinguish between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes; describe an amniotic egg and explain its significance in the evolution of reptiles and mammals;...

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  • The long-awaited sequel to the "Concepts and Practice of Mathematical Finance" has now arrived. Taking up where the first volume left off, a range of topics is covered in depth. Extensive sections include portfolio credit derivatives, quasi-Monte Carlo, the calibration and implementation of the LIBOR market model, the acceleration of binomial trees, the Fourier transform in option pricing and much more. Throughout Mark Joshi brings his unique blend of theory, lucidity, practicality and experience to bear on issues relevant to the working quantitative analyst....

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  • Nanotechnology involves research and development on materials and species at length scales between 1 and 100 nm. The term nano is derived from the Greek word meaning “dwarf.” In dimensional scaling, nano refers to 10–9, i.e., one billionth of a unit. Thus, a nanometer is 10–9 m (0.000000001 m), or about the size of a molecule such as benzene. Nanotechnology therefore, refers to the techniques and methods for studying, designing, and fabricating things at the nanometer scale.

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