Studies on the biology of honeybees stem from ancient times, in both Asia and
Europe. However, published scientific works on the honeybees of both regions
gained unanticipated momentum on the heels of World War II and were boosted
exponentially by Sputnik a decade later. Since that time, 95% of all publications on
Asian and 99% on European honeybees were published. We believe that the
publication of the Ruttner’s monographs (1988, 1992) was further major stimuli
for research on Asian honeybees.
A nested case-control study was undertaken within a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, attended at two HIV
referral centers, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Delay in initiating treatment for TB was defined as the period of time,
in days, which was greater than the median value between the onset of cough and initiating treatment for TB. The
study analyzed biological, clinical, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors as well as those related to HIV and TB infection,
potentially associated to delay. The odds ratios were estimated with the respective confidence intervals and p-values....
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique for
studying gene expression at the genome level. However, short SAGE tags
limit the further study of related data. In this study, in order to identify a
gene, we developed a semi-nested PCR-based method called the two-step
analysis of unknown SAGE tags (TSAT-PCR) to generate longer 3¢-end
cDNA fragments from unknown SAGE tags.
C H A P T E R 11
Vertebrates are mobile animals that move about to secure food, to locate suitable homes and nesting sites, to avoid unfavorable periods of the year, and to find mates. Some species move very little during their lifetimes.
In the present study, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 were identified from
a constructed lung cDNA library of donkey (Equus asinus) as members
of cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides, using a nested PCR-based
cloning strategy. Composed of 25 and 26 residues, respectively,
EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 are smaller than most other cathelicidins
and have no sequence homology to other cathelicidins identified to date.