In 1977, Dr. George Engel’s seminal article on the biopsychosocial
model of disease, “The Need for a New Medical Model:
A Challenge for Biomedicine,” was published in Science. Over
20 years later, the article is still required reading in many
training programs in psychiatry, nursing, psychology, and
social work, because the biopsychosocial model advances a
comprehensive understanding of disease and treatment. The
model is derived from general systems theory, which proposes
that each system affects and is affected by the other systems....
This book is the end result of many influences, all of
which have contributed to its final shape. We would
like to thank all those people who have contributed to
the development and formation of the ideas behind
this book. This is a long list. In recent years it
includes our students and colleagues at the University
of Glamorgan. Prior to this our many colleagues in
our own clinical practices who we have worked with
and our past teachers and mentors who moulded our
ideas about working with people.
The heightened interest in pain management is making the need for appropriate boundary setting
within the clinician–patient relationship even more apparent. Unfortunately, it is impossible to
determine before hand, with any degree of certainty, who will become problematic users of pre-
scription medications. With this in mind, a parallel is drawn between the chronic pain management
paradigm and our past experience with problems identifying the “at-risk” individuals from an
infectious disease model.
This invaluable new resource presents a state-of-the-art account of the psychology of pain from leading researchers. It features contributions from clinical, social, and biopsychological perspectives, the latest theories of pain, as well as basic processes and applied issues. The book opens with an introduction to the history of pain theory and the epidemiology of pain. It then explores theoretical work, including the gate control theory/neuromatrix model, as well as biopsychosocial, cognitive/behavioral, and psychodynamic perspectives.
To represent the specific behaviors of this reflection,
a schematic model was sought that simultaneously covered
health promotion and the Health Policy for the Elderly,
with a view to adopting actions for greater awareness,
resulting in attitudes of empowerment and suggestions
for gerontogeriatric nursing actions. Nola Penders Health
Promotion Model(10) was used. Through a chart, it
manages to represent the behaviors that can lead to health
Nola Penders Model was developed in the United
States in the 1980s, but was little explored in Brazil.