In 1950, the United States Department of Energy (then the U.S. Atomic
Energy Commission) began purchasing the land that became the present
Savannah River Site (SRS). All residents were removed (figure A), and in
1951 the government closed the site to the public to begin work on production
of nuclear weapons materials. At the time, abandoned agricultural
fields dominated upland areas, and the SRS and the USDA Forest
Service initiated an aggressive reforestation program.
Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past
two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition
that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not
most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital
area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We
started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of
benthic algal ecology.
The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses on recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean and provides a broad review of the subject, from genome diversity to transformation and integration of desired genes using current technologies. This book is divided into four parts (Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Breeding for Abiotic Stress, Breeding for Biotic Stress, Recent Technology) and contains 22 chapters.
The world ocean has somewhere between 10 000 and 100 000 seamounts more than 1 km
tall and as many as 1 000 000 features over 100 m tall. These are some of the least understood
habitats on the planet. Large seamounts, particularly those close to or within the
photic zone, support and attract rich biotic communities and are important for the status
of marine food webs and biodiversity. Intensive boom-and-bust fi sheries have depleted
fi sh populations and damaged or destroyed associated benthic communities.
Since the first production of tools at the beginning of human presence on Earth, human evolution is
linked to the invention of new tools, usually combined with new environmental adaptations.
The symbiosis of man with tools and environments represents one of the main factors in human
evolutionary processes. It is evident how this coupling is based on the biophysics of our bodies and the
development of the social memory system called culture.
Critical loads are typically expressed as deposition loading rates of one or more pollutants in amount per area per year (e.g., kilo-
grams per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr)). Critical loads are based on changes to specific biological or chemical indicators such as species
composition of a given ecosystem (e.g., grassland) or biotic community (e.g., understory plants or tree-dwelling lichens) or acid neu-
tralizing capacity (ANC) in soils, streams or lakes. Because different sensitive receptors (e.g.
An ecosystem is a biotic (organic) community joined with the abiotic (inorganic) conditions it lives in. Abiotic factors determine the kind of biotic community that will be found in a given area because the biotic community is both supported by and limited by the abiotic factors. Ecosystems are important because they are the functional units of sustainable life on Earth, making them models of the cycles that produce sustainability.
Forests play a major role in global carbon
(C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect
its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on
the CD of different forest types on a community scale
is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of
forest C sequestration.
The biotic world is doubtlessly the best known example
of what Nobelist Murray Gell-Mann has termed
‘‘complex adaptive systems’’—a name given to those
systems possessing the innate capacity to learn and
evolve by utilizing acquired information. Those familiar
with living systems cannot but marvel at each cell’s ability
to grow, to sense, to communicate, to cooperate, to move,
to proliferate, to die and, even then, to yield opportunity
to succeeding cells.
This book is for anyone interested in the consequences of disturbance.
What happens after the lava cools, or when the muddy floodwaters recede
or an old road is abandoned? Primary succession is the process
of ecosystem development on barren surfaces where severe disturbances
have removed most vestiges of biological activity. It includes the development
of complex systems from simple biotic and abiotic (non-biological)
components. Primary succession starts when plants, animals and microbes
colonize new surfaces. The process is influenced by local conditions, context
and site history.
Chapter 52 - An introduction to ecology and the biosphere. In this chapter, you should be able to: Distinguish among the following types of ecology: organismal, population, community, ecosystem, and landscape; explain how dispersal may contribute to a species’ distribution; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: biotic and abiotic factors, macroclimate and microclimate patterns;...