A large size 80 V bipolar lead acid battery was constructed and tested successfully with a drive cycle especially developed for a HEV. The bipolar battery was made using the bipolar plate developed at TNO and an optimised paste developed by Centurion. An empirical model was derived for calculating the Ragone plot from the results from a small size 12 V bipolar lead±acid battery.
The main objective of this book is to show, in a logical sequence, a set of papers
presenting new ideas that have been the result of the great advance in the knowledge
of steel within the last few decades. Amongst the fundamental topics dealt with is the
relationship between steel's properties in terms of its structure and composition and
how this is affected by its surrounding environment (i.e. stresses, temperature, strains,
Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead–acid batteries, is described. Ebonex® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti4 O7 and Ti5 O9 , which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for ﬁlling and forming of batteries are discussed.