Xem 1-16 trên 16 kết quả Bladder carcinoma
  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Antiproliferative factor decreases Akt phosphorylation and alters gene expression via CKAP4 in T24 bladder carcinoma cells

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 90. Bladder and Renal Cell Carcinomas Bladder Cancer A transitional cell epithelium lines the urinary tract from the renal pelvis to the ureter, urinary bladder, and the proximal two-thirds of the urethra. Cancers can occur at any point: 90% of malignancies develop in the bladder, 8% in the renal pelvis, and the remaining 2% in the ureter or urethra. Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the thirteenth in women, with an estimated 67,160 new cases and 13,750 deaths in the United States predicted for the year 2007.

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  • Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. There are no screening tests available for its diagnosis, therefore patients usually presents in late stages, associated with poor prognosis. Currently, many efforts are made toward new advances in the treatment strategies. The book makes an insight into the assessment of premalignant lesions, current management of early gastric cancer, risk and protective factors in gastric carcinogenesis.

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  • Invasive Disease The treatment of a tumor that has invaded muscle can be separated into control of the primary tumor and, depending on the pathologic findings at surgery, systemic chemotherapy. Radical cystectomy is the standard, although in selected cases a bladder-sparing approach is used; this approach includes complete endoscopic resection; partial cystectomy; or a combination of resection, systemic chemotherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. In some countries, external beam radiation therapy is considered standard.

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  • Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal cell carcinomas account for 90–95% of malignant neoplasms arising from the kidney. Notable features include resistance to cytotoxic agents, infrequent responses to biologic response modifiers such as interleukin (IL) 2, and a variable clinical course for patients with metastatic disease, including anecdotal reports of spontaneous regression. Epidemiology The incidence of renal cell carcinoma continues to rise and is now nearly 51,000 cases annually in the United States, resulting in 13,000 deaths. The male to female ratio is 2:1.

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  • Clinical Presentation The presenting signs and symptoms include hematuria, abdominal pain, and a flank or abdominal mass. This classic triad occurs in 10–20% of patients. Other symptoms are fever, weight loss, anemia, and a varicocele (Table 90-4). The tumor can also be found incidentally on a radiograph. Widespread use of radiologic cross-sectional imaging procedures (CT, ultrasound, MRI) contributes to earlier detection, including incidental renal masses detected during evaluation for other medical conditions.

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  • Renal Cell Carcinoma: Treatment Localized Tumors The standard management for stage I or II tumors and selected cases of stage III disease is radical nephrectomy. This procedure involves en bloc removal of Gerota's fascia and its contents, including the kidney, the ipsilateral adrenal gland, and adjacent hilar lymph nodes. The role of a regional lymphadenectomy is controversial. Extension into the renal vein or inferior vena cava (stage III disease) does not preclude resection even if cardiopulmonary bypass is required.

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  • Pathogenesis The multicentric nature of the disease and high rate of recurrence has led to the hypothesis of a field defect in the urothelium that results in a predisposition to cancer. Molecular genetic analyses suggest that the superficial and invasive lesions develop along distinct molecular pathways in which primary tumorigenic aberrations precede secondary changes associated with progression to a more advanced stage.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Primary osteosarcoma of the urinary bladder treated with external radiotherapy in a patient with a history of transitional cell carcinoma: a case report

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  • Metastatic Disease The primary goal of treatment for metastatic disease is to achieve complete remission with chemotherapy alone or with a combined-modality approach of chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual disease, as is done routinely for the treatment of germ cell tumors. One can define a goal in terms of cure or palliation on the basis of the probability of achieving a complete response to chemotherapy using prognostic factors, such as Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in an Arab woman with history of squamous cell carcinoma: a case report

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  • A transitional cell epithelium lines the urinary tract from the renal pelvis to the ureter, urinary bladder, and the proximal two-thirds of the urethra. Cancers can occur at any point: 90% of malignancies develop in the bladder, 8% in the renal pelvis, and the remaining 2% in the ureter or urethra. Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the thirteenth in women, with an estimated 67,160 new cases and 13,750 deaths in the United States predicted for the year 2007.

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  • We especially paid attention not to distend the bladder too much to prevent a high irrigation pressure and a resultant TUR syndrome. Special attention was paid to avoid the injury to Santorini’s plexus and the rectum. The procedure was started from the 12 o’clock position, dividing the prostate into 6 parts, and resected specimens were collected separately to examine the distribution of cancer. The seminal vesicle was partially resected at its attached part to the prostate between the 4 and 8 o’clock positions to determine the invasion of cancer.

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  • Many of the introductory comments in the first edition of this book regarding the increasingly focused approach required of pathologists to surgical cancer histopathology reports still pertain. In the intervening period a number of trends have continued to develop that have required an update.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Well-differentiated gall bladder hepatoid carcinoma producing alpha-fetoprotein: a case report

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  • It was shown previously [Riedinger, H. J., van Betteraey-Nikoleit, M & Probst, H. (2002)Eur. J. Biochem.269, 2383–2393] that initiation ofin vivo SV40 DNA replication is reversibly suppressed by hypoxia in a state where viral minichromosomes exhibit a nearly complete set of repli-cation proteins. Reoxygenation triggers fast completion and post-translational modifications.

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