Rapid technological developments in the last century have brought the field of biomedical engineering into a totally new realm. Breakthroughs in materials science, imaging, electronics and, more recently, the information age have improved our understanding of the human body. As a result, the field of biomedical engineering is thriving, with innovations that aim to improve the quality and reduce the cost of medical care.
In summary, many of the issues raised can be addressed through effective policymaking
in these five areas, overcoming supply side constraints, establishing and implementing
effective financial and supervisory machinery to ensure smooth functioning of the
insurance sector and its stakeholders, identifying areas where the Government has a role
as a provider of insurance services and last appropriate sequencing of privatization and
liberalization of insurance services, while identifying areas of export interest present or
potential for developing countries.
Dysfunction of the liver, therefore, is often accompanied by emotional changes such as mental
depression or over-excitement, because in addition to the heart, emotional activity is closely
related to the liver Qi. The liver also nourish the tendons of the whole body to maintain their
normal activities of tendon that is the joints and muscles and so the movement of the limbs.
The liver has control on the digestion through secretion and excretion of bile.
Fluid is anechoic (black) on ultrasound. In the case of small amounts of hemoperitoneum,
fluid may be visible only as an anechoic stripe separating the liver and the kidney on the
right, or the spleen and the kidney on the left. Fluid may also accumulate between the
spleen and diaphragm. Free fluid pooled in the pelvis is visible as anechoic collections
lateral to the bladder on a transverse view. Free fluid may also be visible in the recto uterine
recess (pouch of Douglas) in females using a sagittal view. In cases of gross
hemoperitoneum, loops of bowel may be...
There were no patients in whom water intoxication developed or who needed
transfusions perioperatively. Bladder neck contracture, which developed three to four
months postoperatively, was the most frequent complication (49 cases, 32.7%). Other
complications included pubic osteitis (2 cases), bladder tamponade (2 case), acute
epididymitis (3 case), pulmonary embolism (1 case), and rectourethral fistula (1 case).
Erectile function was preserved after the first operation in 26 (60.5%) of the evaluated 38
sexually active patients.
Many procedures were introduced to improve the recovery of
postoperative sexual function and urinary incontinence: bladder neck suspension or
reconstruction (Poon et al., 2000), reconstruction of the rhabdosphincter (Rocco et al., 2007),
periurethral suspension of the dorsal vein complex/urethral complex (Patel et al., 2009) and
preservation of the neurovascular bundle (Kaiho et al., 2005), but have failed to solve the
problems completely until now.
The male reproductive system is adapted for internal fertilization. The
penis is a structure that has evolved to deposit sperm safely within the
female’s body. The tube that passes through the penis, the urethra, has
two functions. It is the pathway for sperm out of the body as well as the
pathway for urine to leave the body after having been stored in the uri-
nary bladder. At the time of sexual excitement, a valve closes. This valve
prevents the bladder from releasing urine. At the same time, nerve
impulses from the brain cause blood vessels in the penis to relax.
Spinal Cord (See also Chap. 372) If the spinal cord is transected, all sensation is lost below the level of transection. Bladder and bowel function are also lost, as is motor function. Hemisection of the spinal cord produces the Brown-Séquard syndrome, with absent pain and temperature sensation contralaterally and loss of proprioceptive sensation and power ipsilaterally below the lesion (see Figs. 25-1 and 372-1).
Numbness or paresthesias in both feet may arise from a spinal cord lesion; this is especially likely when the upper level of the sensory loss extends to the trunk.
Men experiencing troublesome urinary symptoms before treatment should be offered a urologi-
Men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer should be warned of the likely effects of the
treatment on their urinary function.
Healthcare professionals should ensure that men with troublesome urinary symptoms after
treatment should have access to specialist continence services for assessment, diagnosis and
conservative treatment. This may include coping strategies, along with pelvic floor muscle
re-education, bladder retraining and pharmacotherapy.
Table 81-2 Commonly Used Cancer Chemotherapy Agents
Exam ples of Usual Doses
Direct DNA-Interacting Agents
Liver metabolism required
phosphoramide 100 mg/m2 PO qd Common alkylatora Mesna protects Cardiac dose) against Cystitis mustard + acrolein
(high "high-dose" bladder damage
6 mg/m2 IV day
Topical use in cutaneous lymphoma
Vesicant 1 and day 8 Nausea
1–3 mg/m2 qd PO
Patients recovering from tetanus should be actively immunized (see below) because immunity is not induced by the small amount of toxin required to produce disease.
Like all patients receiving ventilatory support, patients with tetanus require attention to hydration; nutrition; physiotherapy; prophylactic anticoagulation; bowel, bladder, and renal function; decubitus ulcer prevention; and treatment of intercurrent infection.
The "Sanjiao" is a large Fu organ containing all the internal organs, and also used to locate
the body parts. The physiological functions of Sanjiao control the activities of the Qi of the
human body. Triple Energizer is a collective name of the upper, middle and lower Jiao
(energizer) :the upper Jiao is that the portion of the body cavity above the diaphragm which
houses the heart and the lung. The middle Jiao is the portion between the diaphragm and
umbilicus which houses the spleen and the stomach.
Chapter 35 - The urinary system. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. This system functions to remove waste products from the bloodstream. These waste products are excreted from the body in the form of urine. Nephrons are microscopic structures in the kidneys that filter blood and form urine.
The learning objectives for this chapter include: Describe the structure, location, and functions of the kidney; explain how nephrons filter blood and form urine; compare the locations, structures, and functions of the ureters, bladder, and urethra; describe the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of various diseases and disorders of the urinary system.