The pathogenesis of osteomyelitis is a complex process involving interactions between a
host and an infectious agent. The host’s inflammatory response to a pathogen can further
the physical spread of disease by clearing space in bone. Predisposing genetic differences in
immune function are increasingly seen as an aetiological factor in some cases of
osteomyelitis. Acquired factors such as diseases causing immune or vascular compromise
and implantation of foreign materials are frequently involved in the disease process as well. ...
Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy This is an infrequent cause of acute visual loss, induced by the combination of severe anemia and hypotension. Cases have been reported after major blood loss during surgery, exsanguinating trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and renal dialysis. The fundus usually appears normal, although optic disc swelling develops if the process extends far enough anteriorly. Vision can be salvaged in some patients by prompt blood transfusion and reversal of hypotension.
Optic Neuritis This is a common inflammatory disease of the optic nerve.
Dental Care of Medically Complex Patients Routine dental care (e.g., extraction, scaling and cleaning, tooth restoration, and root canal) is remarkably safe. The most common concerns regarding care of dental patients with medical disease are fear of excessive bleeding for patients on anticoagulants, infection of the heart valves and prosthetic devices from hematogenous seeding of oral flora, and cardiovascular complications resulting from vasopressors used with local anesthetics during dental treatment. Experience confirms that the risks of any of these complications are very low.
However, a recent study of Moriwaki and al  found ultrasound was 85% sensitive and
100% specific for detection of free air in a prospective study of 484 patients. Some small
studies have also investigated the utility of ultrasound contrast agents to detect active
bleeding . Ultrasound is relatively sensitive for free abdominal fluid. In a study,
continuous scanning of Morison’s pouch during infusion of DPL fluid revealed a mean
detection limit of 619 mL.
The indications for these surgical procedures were: recurrent hemoptysis
(24 cases), massive hemoptysis (4 cases), multi drug resistant TB (4 cases), bronchiectasis and recurrent infection (2 cases), and right
bronchial stenosis (1 case). In two of the patients the indication for surgery was intra-bronchial carcinoid tumour. Lymph node biopsies
obtained during the surgery showed pathological changes of TB.