Blood poisoning

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  • Introduction: Blood, urine and stomach contents (including gastric lavage fluid and vomitus) are usually used as specimens for analysis of drugs and poisons for living subjects. A blood concentration of a toxin can be an indicator for estimation of intoxication degree. Urine sometimes contains large amounts of metabolites and/or an unchanged form of a toxin; it contains low levels of proteins, which usually interfere with analysis, and thus is suitable for screening tests using immunoassays without tedious pretreatments.

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  • Introduction: Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence; there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class: IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC [1–4], HPLC [5–7] and GC/MS [8]. In this chapter, a simple method for GC/MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented. ⊡ Figure 5.1 Structures of pentazocine and dextromethorphan (IS).

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  • Introduction: Determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood is important for the diagnosis of poisoning by oxidants, such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, chlorite, alkyl nitrites, nitroglycerin, aniline and other compounds. In 1938, Evelyn and Malloy [1] had devised a photoelectric method for determination of Met-Hb in blood. Minor modifications of this method were made by several researchers to increase sensitivity [2–4]. These methods are based on a phenomenon that the absorbance maximum of weakly acidic Met-Hb at 630 nm disappears by addition of cyanide.

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  • Introduction: Alcohol usually means ethanol/ethyl alcohol. It has a long history for the human being, and gives euphoric effects and sometimes improves the human relationship. In contrast, there are many cases of violence, injuries, homicides and traffic accidents with drinking; close relation can be observed between ethanol and crimes/accidents. When forensic autopsies are performed, ethanol concentrations in blood and urine are routinely measured. GC analysis of ethanol using the conventional packed columns is described in many of literature [1, 2].

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  • Introduction: As coumarin rodenticides, warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumafuryl, coumachlor and bromadiolone are commercially available in Japan. The coumarin rodenticides do not show direct anticoagulant action causing bleeding, but inhibit the metabolic cycle of vitamin K; the inhibition causes the interference with protein biosynthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulant factors (II, VII, IX and X factors) in the liver, which are very important for the blood coagulation system. The lowered coagulant factors cause the bleeding deaths of the rodents [1].

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  • Harry spends the Christmas holidays with the Weasleys. On Christmas Eve, Bellatrix Lestrange and Fenrir Greyback set fire to the Burrow. Back at school, Ron is nearly killed when he drinks poisoned mead, a drink originally intended for Dumbledore. While recovering, Ron murmurs Hermione's name, ausing Lavender to end their relationship. Harry confronts Draco and severely injures him with a Sectumsempra curse taken from the textbook of the Half-Blood Prince. Snape enters and quickly heals Draco's wound.

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  • Introduction: Blood and urine are the common specimens for drug analysis in both antemortem and postmortem cases. Usually, urine is used for drug screening using immunoassays at the first step; secondly, the drug detected is chromatographically quantitated with blood. The data obtained are carefully assessed with taking the values reported in references into consideration together with clinical and postmortem findings; the judgement of poisoning and its degree is made comprehensively.

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  • Introduction: Pyrethroids are the general term for insecticide pyrethrins and their analogs (cinerins and jasmolins) being included in the flowers of pyrethrum or chrysanthemum. Trace concentrations of pyrethroids exert rapid toxic effects on insects, but are rapidly metabolized for detoxification in warm-blooded animals; they are insecticides with very high safety for humans. On the basis of clarification of chemical structures of the effective components of the pyrethrum, many of new synthetic pyrethroids were developed.

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  • Introductio: β-Blockers (β-adrenergic receptor antagonists) block the effects of catecholamines on signal transmission through β-receptors; they cause hypotension by decreasing the heart beat rate and cardiac output, and prevent the attacks of arrhythmia and angina pectoris. In the brain, the drugs attenuate migraine by suppressing the dilation of blood vessels; in the eye, they decrease intraocular pressure by suppressing the production of aqueous humor.

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  • History The answers to questions with high discriminating value can quickly narrow the range of potential causes of diarrhea and help determine whether treatment is needed. Important elements of the narrative history are detailed in Fig. 122-1. Physical Examination The examination of patients for signs of dehydration provides essential information about the severity of the diarrheal illness and the need for rapid therapy. Mild dehydration is indicated by thirst, dry mouth, decreased axillary sweat, decreased urine output, and slight weight loss.

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  • The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine (GEAM) is a one-stop source for alternative medical information that covers complementary therapies, herbs and remedies, and common medical diseases and conditions. It avoids medical jargon when possible, making it easier for the layperson to use. The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine presents authoritative, balanced information and is more comprehensive than single-volume family medical guides.

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  • Health Queries, Dr H.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "British national formulary 70 (BNF)" presentation of content: Genito-urinary system, malignant disease, blood and nutrition, musculoskeletal system, ear, nose and oropharynx, eye, skin, vaccines, emergency treatment of poisoning, anaesthesia. Invite you to consult.

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  • The main risks in acute poisoning are: hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, and a rise in the metabolic rate leading to death by cardiac arrest. In chronic exposure, the main riss are: skin, blood, neurological and respiratory disorders, porphyria, non-specific symptoms, and the possibility of cancer.

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  • Mercury, in its elemental form, is a liquid metal that can form a vapour at room temperature. Inhaling mercury vapours or ingesting mercury can cause serious injury or death. The body is able to excrete mercury slowly; if the level of exposure is not too high, recovery can take place following accidental or short-term exposure. High levels of exposure may cause birth defects, permanent brain or kidney damage, and death. Mercury becomes more poisonous when it is converted to methylmercury (the principal form found in fish) because it is able to enter blood and organs, especially the brain.

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  • In the last quarter-century childhood lead poisoning declined dramatically as common sources of lead exposure such as leaded gasoline were eliminated or reduced. From 1976 through 1994, the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels [10 micrograms lead per deciliter whole blood (µg/dL) or more] among children aged 1 to 5 years dropped from 88.2% to 4.4% (10, 29, 79).

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