Brain and cognition

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  • This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1989-01-01 edition. Excerpt: ... subject with proper alignment of the planes of section. This will be both expensive and time-consuming; however, at least in selected cases (e.g., cases of aging and dementia with brain atrophy), such an interaction will be essential. More speculative will be the use of MRI to further constrain PET data by defining gray-white matter differences.

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  • The new edition of this highly successful A–Z guide explores the main concepts and terms used in the study of language and linguistics. Containing over 300 entries, thoroughly updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, this book includes entries in: Cognitive linguistics; Discourse analysis; Phonology and phonetics; Psycholinguistics; Sociolinguistics; Syntax and semantics.

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  • This book is the second in the series “Nutrition, Brain and Behavior.” The purpose of this series is to provide a forum whereby basic and clinical scientists can share their knowledge and perspectives regarding the role of nutrition in brain function and behavior. The breadth and diversity of the topics covered in this book make it of great interest to specialists working on coffee/caffeine/tea/chocolate research, to nutritionists and physicians, and to anyone interested in obtaining objective information on the consequences of the consumption of coffee, tea, and chocolate on the brain.

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  • TSC and DST have only recently entered into the general discussion about the mind and brain, and cannot be regarded as common ground. Several of the features that make the combination of the two a viable alterna- tive to connectionism and traditional theories of cognition based in symbol manipulation so far have not been widely recognised. The initial discussion of TSC and DST will present some of the elements that together provide a comprehensive and radically different view of the mind from the received one, and that might illuminate contemporary aesthetics....

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  • ontological mode, wherever there are what might be called `modified objects' to which the modified meanings refer. And indeed, according to Meinong and Witasek, such is the case in the domain of `presentations' and other psychic phenomena. That which I experience when I `see' the sheriff on the screen is not strictly speaking, a presentation at all, for when I present to myself the sheriff in the throes of death, there is no (existing) object which is presented to me (and here it is irrelevant whether a certain person - an actor - was involved at an early stage...

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  • Neville Hogan is Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is Director of the Newman Laboratory for Biomechanics and Human Rehabilitation and a founder and director of Interactive Motion Technologies, Inc., a company offering innovative robotic tools to study and treat neuro-motor impairments. Born in Dublin, Ireland, he obtained a Dip. Eng. (with distinction) from Dublin Institute of Technology and M.S., M.E. and Ph.D. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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  • Objective: Previous research suggests that engaging in mentally stimulating tasks may improve brain health and cognitive abilities. Using computer search engines to find information on the Internet has become a frequent daily activity of people at any age, including middleaged and older adults.

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  • Chemistry comprises two related but distinct activities:(i)the quest for an understanding of matter and material change,(ii)the utilization of material change for human ends.Ideally, thefirst activity provides the necessary know-how for the pursuit of the second, but in practice, the help it can give is only partial, and the second activity has to fall back on trial and error techniques in order to achieve its ends. This means that a good chemist is one who not only has a mastery of chemical theory, but also a good knowledge of chemical facts.

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  • This book began as a collection of articles on neuropsychiatric disease, but with a clear focus on Schizophrenia, which is a poorly understood but very disabling group of brain disorders. We now recognize schizophrenia as a disorder of the brain, but despite advances in treatment options we are still a long way from having effective treatments, particularly for cognitive symptoms, and lack effective interventions and ways to prevent this disease.

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  • Among the elements of the conferences that have to do with the elderly, the following are noted: education about the main health problems and the methods to prevent them; promotion of food supplies and adequate nutrition; supply of appropriate drinking water and basic sanitation; immunization against major infectious diseases; prevention and control of endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and accident consequences and availability of essential medication, in addition to social resources, such as social groups, universities open to the seniors and awareness about the ph...

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  • Among all the clinical indications for which radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians, neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists (and others examining disorders of the brain) order and read brain PET scans, demand is greatest for those pertaining to dementia and related disorders. This demand is driven by the sheer prevalence of those conditions, coupled with the fact that the differential diagnosis for causes of cognitive impairment is wide and often difficult to distinguish clinically.

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  • If the saturated phenomenon encompasses excessive phenomena, it can also account for extremely empty and poor phenomena. This process of inversion and turnaround between two extremes in perception is certainly due to the ‘negative’ qualities of Marion’s philosophy and of the French phenomenological new wave in general 4 . Poor phenomena become saturated into an equilibrium system between the empty and the full, the excess and the lack.

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  • The area of work that is, perhaps, most readily associated with work in the realm beyond the rationality and control is research on emotions. A num- ber of broad domains of scholarship can be seen as working to describe the emotions or feelings experienced in learning situations. Research on the brain, spurred by advancements in imaging technology, offers tanta- lizing glimpses into the relationship between emotions, cognition, and behavior. Another general domain in the study of emotions focuses on students’ feelings about themselves or their performance.

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  • A variety of scientific disciplines have set as their task explaining mental activities, recognizing that in some way these activities depend upon our brain. But, until recently, the opportunities to conduct experiments directly on our brains were limited. As a result, research efforts were split between disciplines such as cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence that investigated behavior, while disciplines such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and genetics experimented on the brains of non-human animals.

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  • Usually, art production is dealt with by theories of creativity or portraits of the individual artist, while the viewer’s encounter with art is considered in analyses of aesthetic experience or explained by reference to empirical data about the mind/brain. This ap- proach makes it seem as if artist and viewer relate to art in radically different ways. It may appear reasonable, inasmuch as the viewer’s relationship to art in comparison to that of the artist is predominantly passive.

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  • The continuing development of implantable neural prostheses signals a new era in bioengineering and neuroscience research. This collection of essays outlines current advances in research on the intracranial implantation of devices that can communicate with the brain in order to restore sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. The contributors explore the creation of biologically realistic mathematical models of brain function, the production of microchips that incorporate those models, and the integration of microchip and brain function through neuron-silicon interf...

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  • Chapter 12 - The central nervous system (part c), in this chapter you will learn about the following: Functional brain systems, limbic system, limbic system: emotion and cognition, reticular formation, reticular formation: RAS and motor function, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain waves,...and other contents.

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  • Kuru was the first chronic degenerative disease of man shown to be a slow virus infection, with incubation periods measured in years and with a pro- gressive accumulative pathology always leading to death. This established that virus infections of man could, after long delay, produce chronic degenera- tive disease and disease with apparent heredofamilial patterns of occurrence, and with none of the inflammatory responses regularly associated with viral infections.

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  • . We wanted to incorporate the latest research in language acquisition and cognitive science; we wanted to create a "brain-friendly" environment for the students and a "teacher-friendly" format for the instructor. We wanted to continually demonstrate to the teachers and stu dents how far they had come and how far they had to go.

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  • Modern neuroimaging tools allow unprecedented opportunities for understanding brain neuroanatomy and function in health and disease. Each available technique carries with it a particular balance of strengths and limitations, such that converging evidence based on multiple methods provides the most powerful approach for advancing our knowledge in the fields of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. In addition to offering fine-grained in-vivo neuroanatomical specification, neuroimaging methods also provide the opportunity to non-invasively explore brain function.

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