This is the VOA Special English Health Report.
Last week doctors in Massachusetts announced that Senator Ted Kennedy has brain
The news came after he suffered a seizure. Doctors found a glioma, a growth in the
supportive tissue of the brain. The glial tissue is where the largest percentage of brain
Researchers in the field agree that in general the diagnosis of cancer elicits greater dis-
tress than any other disease. The literature documents numerous negative psychological
consequences for patients including depression (Meyerowitz, 1980), anxiety (Ervin, 1973),
and hostility and anger (Vachon & Lyall, 1976).
Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past
few decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous
improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study
of brain anatomy and pathology. The field of brain imaging has now become a fast-
moving, demanding, and exciting multidisciplinary activity. I hope that this textbook
will be useful to students and clinicians in the field of neuroscience, in understanding
the fundamentals of advances in brain imaging.
It is my privilege to introduce this Handbook on Advanced Cancer Care,
which belongs to a series of publications initiated by the European Society
for Medical Oncology (ESMO). There is a great need, especially for medical
oncologists, to have a comprehensive overview of the essential elements
needed for the care of patients with advanced cancer. This handbook fulfills
The Handbook on Advanced Cancer Care provides useful definitions and
surveys of treatment principles.
Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency
during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin
A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause
blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of
HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube
defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.
it is necessary to integrate the information of all the spectral images to classify tissues.
Multi-spectral image processing techniques [1-3] are hence employed to collect spectral
information for classification and of clinically critical values. In this paper, a new
classification approach was proposed, it is called unsupervised Vector Seeded Region
Growing (UVSRG). The UVSRG mainly select seed pixel vectors by means of standard
deviation and relative Euclidean distance.
Treatment of Metastatic Disease
Melanoma can metastasize to any internal organ, the brain being a particularly common site. Metastatic melanoma is generally incurable, with survival in patients with visceral metastases generally
The pelvic examination begins with a visual inspection of the external geni-
talia using the assistance of a good light source. Although skin cancer is rare
in this region, it is often diagnosed late. Vulvar cancer can be hyperpig-
mented, erythematous, or hypopigmented, and any such lesions require care-
ful evaluation and often biopsy (see Chapter 17). Lichen sclerosus is a
relatively common condition in which the vulvar skin may appear like parch-
ment. It is more common in postmenopausal women, but occurs in all ages,
and can be associated with cancer. ...
Table 87-5 Hereditable (Autosomal Dominant) Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes
tion of Polyps gic Type
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Large intestine a
fibromas, lipomas, epidermoid cysts, ampullary cancers, congenital hypertrophy retinal of
Large intestine a
Endometri and ovarian
posis syndrome int...
Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a family of cysteine-rich metalloproteins
involved in cytoprotection during pathology. In mammals there are four
isoforms (MT-I )IV), of which MT-I and -II (MT-I + II) are the best
characterized MT proteins in the brain. Accumulating studies have demon-strated MT-I + II as multipurpose factors important for host defense
responses, immunoregulation, cell survival and brain repair.
Brain Masses Mass lesions of the brain most often present as headache with or without fever or neurologic abnormalities. Infections associated with mass lesions may be caused by bacteria (particularly Nocardia), fungi (particularly Cryptococcus or Aspergillus), or parasites (Toxoplasma). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–associated lymphoproliferative disease may also present as single or multiple mass lesions of the brain. A biopsy may be required for a definitive diagnosis.
BASP1 (also known as CAP-23 and NAP-22) is a brain abundant myri-stoylated protein localized at the inner surface of the presynaptic plasma
membrane. Emerging evidence suggests that BASP1 is critically involved in
various cellular processes, in particular, in the accumulation of phosphati-dylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PIP2) in lipid raft microdomains.
13-cisRetinoic acid (13cRA), a stereoisomeric form of retinoic acid, is nat-urally generated in the body and is also used clinically to treat acute prom-yelocytic leukemia, some skin diseases and cancer. Furthermore, it has
been suggested that 13cRA modulates brain neurochemical systems because
increased 13cRA levels are correlated with depression and increased sui-cidal tendencies.
Neuro-oncology has evolved substantially as a
clinical and research discipline over the past few
decades. Initially the province of isolated devotees,
it has become a well-recognized subspecialty
of neurology, oncology, and neurosurgery. The
Society for Neuro-Oncology, founded just five
years ago, now has almost 1000 members. Most
tertiary care hospitals have staff physicians who
consider themselves neuro-oncologists. These physicians
typically are involved in the evaluation and
management of neurologic complications of systemic
cancer and its treatment, as well as of primary
Socioeconomic disparities in cancer incidence and mortality in the United States persist and
remain an urgent public health problem. Recent studies of cancer and both individual- and area-
level socioeconomic status (SES) have found low SES or poverty to be associated with higher
incidence of lung, cervical, stomach, oral, and esophageal cancer.
Also, a lower incidence of
breast cancer and melanoma has been observed among persons residing in poorer areas.
The purpose of advocacy, communication, and community mobilization is to empower
individuals to make informed decisions on programme design and service utilization. It is
essential to engage community and professional groups to ensure community participation
and acceptance. Informing target audiences regarding key messages on cervical cancer
prevention should be done well in advance of programme introduction. United Nations
organizations and other technical experts should increase advocacy efforts and awareness to
reach country level staff and partners....
Although the psychosocial oncology literature is strong, substantial limitations and
unanswered questions remain. Much of the research has focused on heterogeneous
samples of patients who vary widely across disease site (e.g., melanoma vs. breast
cancer), stage of progression (e.g., localized vs. metastatic), and phase of illness (e.g.,
initial diagnosis vs. long-term survival). The challenges patients face vary widely across
these dimensions, and therefore, it is crucial for research designs to take this into
The vascular network of the brain is formed by the invasion of vascular
sprouts from the pia mater toward the ventricles. Following angiogenesis
of the primary vascular network, brain vessels experience a maturation pro-cess known as barriergenesis, in which the blood–brain barrier is formed.
Incubation of an NAD
-dependent succinic semialdehyde
dehydrogenase from bovine brain with 4-dimethylamino-azobenzene-4-iodoacetamide (DABIA) resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzymatic activity. This inactivation
followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with a second-order rate
constant of 168M
enzyme showed a characteristic peak of the DABIA alkyl-ated sulfhydryl group chromophore at 436 nm, which was
absent from the spectrum of the native enzyme.
We purified to homogeneity and characterized NTPDase1
and NTPDase2 from porcine brain cortex synaptosomes.
SDS/PAGE and immunoblotting with antibodies specific
to these enzymes revealed a molecular mass estimated at
72 kDa for NTPDase1 and 66 for NTPDase2. Both
enzymes exhibited kinetic properties typical for all members
of the NTPDase family, e.g. low substrate specificity for tri-anddiphosphonucleosides, divalent cations dependency and
insensitivity towards ATPase inhibitors.