Brain functions

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  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents one of the most advanced and enlightening functional imaging techniques that has ever been developed. The past ten years (1990–2000) of scientific research has been designated the decade of the brain and has led to numerous technological developments and the establishment of fundamental clinical protocols to understand brain functions. The next decade, the beginning of the 21st century, will continue the great momentum of brain research.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: Research Article Estimation of Time-Varying Coherence and Its Application in Understanding Brain Functional Connectivity

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and brain function during emotional distraction from cognitive ...

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  • Recent developments/efforts to understand aspects of the brain function at the subneural level are discussed. MicroTubules (MTs), protein polymers constructing the cytoskeleton, participate in a wide variety of dynamical processes in the cell. Of special interest to us is the MTs participation in bioinformation processes such as learning and memory, by possessing a well-known binary error-correcting code [K1(13, 26, 5)] with 64 words. In fact, MTs and DNA/RNA are unique cell structures that possess a code system.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Can electrophysiological assessments of brain function be useful to the intensive care physician in daily clinical practice?

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  • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of brain is typically called fMRI. It has become a fundamental modality of imaging at any MRI suite of service center or hospital. Our book has been compiled with the aim of incorporating a wide range of applied neuropsychological evaluation methods. It is aimed at those who are embarking on neuropsychological research projects, as well as relatively experienced psychologists and neuroscientists who might wish to further develop their experiments.

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  • The continuing development of implantable neural prostheses signals a new era in bioengineering and neuroscience research. This collection of essays outlines current advances in research on the intracranial implantation of devices that can communicate with the brain in order to restore sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. The contributors explore the creation of biologically realistic mathematical models of brain function, the production of microchips that incorporate those models, and the integration of microchip and brain function through neuron-silicon interf...

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  • This book is the second in the series “Nutrition, Brain and Behavior.” The purpose of this series is to provide a forum whereby basic and clinical scientists can share their knowledge and perspectives regarding the role of nutrition in brain function and behavior. The breadth and diversity of the topics covered in this book make it of great interest to specialists working on coffee/caffeine/tea/chocolate research, to nutritionists and physicians, and to anyone interested in obtaining objective information on the consequences of the consumption of coffee, tea, and chocolate on the brain.

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  • The growth of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for studying brain function, as opposed to its more traditional role as a tool for studying brain anatomy and pathology, has been quite remarkable over the past decade. This has been driven in large measure by an appreciation of the considerable potential for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to increase our understanding of how the human brain works, both in the normal and diseased states.

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  • Cranial nerves are involved in head and neck function, and processes such as eating, speech and facial expression. This clinically oriented survey of cranial nerve anatomy and function was written for students of medicine, dentistry and speech therapy, but will also be useful for postgraduate physicians and general practitioners, and specialists in head and neck healthcare (surgeons, dentists, speech therapists, etc.). After an introductory section surveying cranial nerve organization and tricky basics such as ganglia, nuclei and brain stem...

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  • Pathophysiologic responses in brain after stroke are highly complex. Thus far, a singular focus on saving neurons alone has not revealed any clinically effective neuroprotectants. To address this limitation, the concept of a neu-rovascular unit was developed. Within this conceptual framework, brain function and dysfunction are manifested at the level of cell–cell signaling between neuronal, glial and vascular elements.

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  • Study differences in experimental design, including choice of spectral bands, brain regions, brain states (activated or resting) and type of analysis, as well as small sample sizes, differences in sample age ranges, diversityofseverityofimpairment, lack of replication tests and disparity of results make difficult a meaningful summary of spectral coherence findings in ASD. Furthermore, few studies considered the reality of ASD group-specific EEG artifacts, including eye blink and muscle movement, and their potential spurious effects upon coherence.

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  • This is a watershed moment in the field of neuroimaging. At least three emerging trends have been slowly reframing the field for the last five years. Each one of these trends intersects with a foundational issue in human brain mapping, affecting the measurement or methodological or theoretical nature of the overall field. First are methodological problems that have arisen concerning nonindependence of samples—in effect the lack of cross-validation procedures applied in the field, especially in social neuroscience (SN).

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  • Modern neuroimaging tools allow unprecedented opportunities for understanding brain neuroanatomy and function in health and disease. Each available technique carries with it a particular balance of strengths and limitations, such that converging evidence based on multiple methods provides the most powerful approach for advancing our knowledge in the fields of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. In addition to offering fine-grained in-vivo neuroanatomical specification, neuroimaging methods also provide the opportunity to non-invasively explore brain function.

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  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), unlike conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides information on the brain’s chemical environment (rather than neuroanatomical structure) and the data are most commonly presented as line spectra. This capacity for determining brain metabolite concentrations provides the basis for clinical investigation of, and differentiation between, neurological and neurosurgical conditions.

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  • Although a general understanding persists that the human brain functions similarly in women and in men, an increasing body of knowledge indicates that neuronal connectivity, recruitment, and disease patterns exhibit gender differences. Imaging techniques such as positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) have highlighted some gender-based differences in human brain function.

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  • Tendons are known to have a profound impact on the overall function of the musculoskeletal system in their role as a structural link and force transmitter between muscle and bone. Their unique viscoelastic response under tension allows efficient use and recycling of stored energy during stretch involved in locomotion, modulating joint position control, and providing protection from muscle injuries through reduction of mechanical oscillation and shock.

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  • EACH YEAR IN the United States, more than three million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this population, the psychosocial and psychological deficits are the major source of disability to the patient and of stress to the family. Patients may have difficulties in many vital areas of functioning, including family, interpersonal, work, school, and recreational activities. Many have extreme personality changes.

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  • With the advent of new anatomical and functional brain imaging methods, it is now possible to collect vast amounts of data from the living human brain. It has thus become very important to extract the essential features from the data to allow an easier representation or interpretation of their properties. This is a very promising area of application for independent component analysis (ICA). Not only is this an area of rapid growth and great importance; some kinds of brain imaging data also seem to be quite well described by the ICA model. ...

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  • Cerebrovascular diseases have an enormous and increasing impact on societies: they rank among the leading causes of death, are often associated with chronic handicap, and cause high costs for primary treatment, rehabilitation and chronic care. The advent of treatment options such as reperfusion therapies and, to a lesser degree, neuroprotective strategies on the one hand, and growing means to enhance rehabilitation and functional plasticity on the other hand, urges physicians to diagnose stroke subtypes as early and precisely as possible.

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