The committee is grateful for the contribution of participants at its three public meetings. The
presentations and discussions at these meeting were valuable in informing the committee about relevant
research findings, issues of interest in the research community, the perspectives of advocacy
organizations, and the concerns of individuals with breast cancer and their families. The agendas for these
meetings appear in Appendix A.
Genes contain the recipes for the
various proteins a cell needs to stay
healthy and function normally. Some
genes and the proteins they make can
influence how a breast cancer behaves
and how it might respond to a specific
treatment. Cancer cells from a tissue
sample can be tested to see which
genes are normal and abnormal. The
proteins they make can also be tested.
If the genetic recipe contains a mistake
the report will say “genetic mutation”
or “genetic abnormality.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 inhibited human
MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through recon-stituted basement membranein vitro. Inhibition of invasion
was dependent upon plasminogen and MMP-3 activation,
was impaired by the peptide MMP-3 inhibitor Ac-Arg-Cys-Gly-Val-Pro-Asp-NH2 and was associated with: rapid
MMP-3-mediated plasminogen degradation to microplas-minogen and angiostatin-like fragments;
A major contributing factor to the development of breast cancer is
decreased functional expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1,
BRCA1. Another key contributor to tumorigenesis is hypoxia. Here we
show that hypoxia increased the nuclear localization of BRCA1 in MCF-7
and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cell lines without changing its
steady-state expression level.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in
the United States with 170,000 deaths per year. This exceeds the sum of the
next three leading causes of death due to cancer: breast, colon, and prostate.
There are over 1 million deaths worldwide due to lung cancer, making it truly
an epidemic. Fewer than 15% achieve a 5-yr survival. The vast majority (85%)
present with advanced disease, although stage I patients may have a 5-yr
survival approaching 70% (1).
Many disorders exhibit the feature of locus heterogeneity, which refers to the fact that mutations in different genes can cause phenotypically similar disorders. For example, osteogenesis imperfecta (Chap. 357), long QT syndrome (Chap. 226), muscular dystrophy (Chap. 382), homocystinuria (Chap. 358), retinitis pigmentosa (Chap. 29), and hereditary predisposition to colon cancer (Chap. 87) or breast cancer (Chap. 86) can each be caused by mutations in distinct genes.
Breast self-examination, clinical breast examination by a care giver, and mammography have been advocated as useful screening tools. Only screening mammography alone and screening mammography with clinical examination have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. MRI is being assessed and is more accurate than mammography in women at high risk due to genetic predisposition or in women with very dense breast tissue.
There have been a significant number of advances
in the field of cancer research since the
first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published
in 1981. These include advances in defining
the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer
cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular
imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors,
the regulation of gene expression, and the
‘‘-omics’’ techniquesofgenomics, proteomics,and
metabolomics, among others.
One of the more interesting aspects of the announcement by Ian Wilmut that
he and his colleagues in Scotland had successfully “cloned” a sheep born in 1996
was the enormous public interest and misunderstanding about cloning. The common
misperception, which persists to this day, is that a cloned individual would
be an exact duplicate of another.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Breast cancer risk assessment with five independent genetic variants and two risk factors in chinese women
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: PARP-1 inhibitors: are they the long-sought genetically specific drugs for BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers?
People with MEN1 have a very high risk of developing tumors of 3 glands: the pituitary,
parathyroid, and pancreas. About one-third to one-half of people with this condition also
develop adrenal adenomas or enlarged adrenal glands. These usually do not cause any
symptoms. This syndrome is caused by defects in a gene called MEN1. People who have
a family history of MEN1 or pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, or adrenal cancers should
ask their doctor if they might benefit from genetic counseling.
By 1991, the NHSBSP was inviting over one million women a year for
screening. In the autumn of that year, a controversy erupted when the
value of breast self examination was questioned by the then Chief Medi-
cal Officer. Over the next three weeks, the policy of breast awareness,
which had been under development, was hastily polished and delivered.
The Department of Health then released the first figures from the breast
screening programme showing that it was finding a high rate of cancers
and appeared to be on target.
The ability to distinguish individuals from events (e.g., hospital admis-
sions) is a key feature of a cancer registry. Thus, the registry should have
sufficient information on each individual to avoid multiple registrations
of the same subject. The most universal and generally used identifier is
the name. The utility of using names will vary depending on local cus-
tom. For instance, surname (or family name) may not be used—persons
may be known only by their first name. Individuals may change their
name when they get married or for other social reasons.
In addition to incidence figures, population-based cancer registries that
conduct adequate follow-up of their patients are able to estimate the preva-
lence of cancer. Prevalence figures give an indication of the burden of the dis-
ease in the community. Cancer registries generally assume that once diag-
nosed with cancer, an individual remains a prevalent case until death. Thus,
prevalence may be estimated from data on incidence and survival.
Breast cancer cells exhibit excessive proteolysis, which is responsible for
extensive extracellular matrix degradation, invasion and metastasis. Besides
other proteases, lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B has been impli-cated in these processes and the impairment of its intracellular activity was
suggested to reduce harmful proteolysis and hence diminish progression of
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and
technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report
Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments
that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the
report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge....