Breast cancer genetics

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  • The committee is grateful for the contribution of participants at its three public meetings. The presentations and discussions at these meeting were valuable in informing the committee about relevant research findings, issues of interest in the research community, the perspectives of advocacy organizations, and the concerns of individuals with breast cancer and their families. The agendas for these meetings appear in Appendix A.

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  • Breast cancer (BC), the most common type of cancer among women worldwide, is a polygenetic disease which is caused by the interaction of several genes. Understanding the genetic factors for early diagnosis of BC is crucial to ensure the survival of BC patients. MicroRNA 27a (miR-27a), an oncogenic miRNA, has been predicted to target on the tumor suppressor ZBTB10 that can regulate many processes of cell.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'developing technologies for the early detection of breast cancer', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Genes contain the recipes for the various proteins a cell needs to stay healthy and function normally. Some genes and the proteins they make can influence how a breast cancer behaves and how it might respond to a specific treatment. Cancer cells from a tissue sample can be tested to see which genes are normal and abnormal. The proteins they make can also be tested. If the genetic recipe contains a mistake the report will say “genetic mutation” or “genetic abnormality.

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  • Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 inhibited human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through recon-stituted basement membranein vitro. Inhibition of invasion was dependent upon plasminogen and MMP-3 activation, was impaired by the peptide MMP-3 inhibitor Ac-Arg-Cys-Gly-Val-Pro-Asp-NH2 and was associated with: rapid MMP-3-mediated plasminogen degradation to microplas-minogen and angiostatin-like fragments;

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  • A major contributing factor to the development of breast cancer is decreased functional expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1, BRCA1. Another key contributor to tumorigenesis is hypoxia. Here we show that hypoxia increased the nuclear localization of BRCA1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cell lines without changing its steady-state expression level.

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  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in the United States with 170,000 deaths per year. This exceeds the sum of the next three leading causes of death due to cancer: breast, colon, and prostate. There are over 1 million deaths worldwide due to lung cancer, making it truly an epidemic. Fewer than 15% achieve a 5-yr survival. The vast majority (85%) present with advanced disease, although stage I patients may have a 5-yr survival approaching 70% (1).

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  • Many disorders exhibit the feature of locus heterogeneity, which refers to the fact that mutations in different genes can cause phenotypically similar disorders. For example, osteogenesis imperfecta (Chap. 357), long QT syndrome (Chap. 226), muscular dystrophy (Chap. 382), homocystinuria (Chap. 358), retinitis pigmentosa (Chap. 29), and hereditary predisposition to colon cancer (Chap. 87) or breast cancer (Chap. 86) can each be caused by mutations in distinct genes.

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  • Breast Cancer Breast self-examination, clinical breast examination by a care giver, and mammography have been advocated as useful screening tools. Only screening mammography alone and screening mammography with clinical examination have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. MRI is being assessed and is more accurate than mammography in women at high risk due to genetic predisposition or in women with very dense breast tissue.

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  • There have been a significant number of advances in the field of cancer research since the first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published in 1981. These include advances in defining the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors, the regulation of gene expression, and the ‘‘-omics’’ techniquesofgenomics, proteomics,and metabolomics, among others.

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  • One of the more interesting aspects of the announcement by Ian Wilmut that he and his colleagues in Scotland had successfully “cloned” a sheep born in 1996 was the enormous public interest and misunderstanding about cloning. The common misperception, which persists to this day, is that a cloned individual would be an exact duplicate of another.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Genetic variants in the MRPS30 region and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Breast cancer risk assessment with five independent genetic variants and two risk factors in chinese women

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: PARP-1 inhibitors: are they the long-sought genetically specific drugs for BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers?

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  • People with MEN1 have a very high risk of developing tumors of 3 glands: the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas. About one-third to one-half of people with this condition also develop adrenal adenomas or enlarged adrenal glands. These usually do not cause any symptoms. This syndrome is caused by defects in a gene called MEN1. People who have a family history of MEN1 or pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, or adrenal cancers should ask their doctor if they might benefit from genetic counseling.

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  • By 1991, the NHSBSP was inviting over one million women a year for screening. In the autumn of that year, a controversy erupted when the value of breast self examination was questioned by the then Chief Medi- cal Officer. Over the next three weeks, the policy of breast awareness, which had been under development, was hastily polished and delivered. The Department of Health then released the first figures from the breast screening programme showing that it was finding a high rate of cancers and appeared to be on target.

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  • The ability to distinguish individuals from events (e.g., hospital admis- sions) is a key feature of a cancer registry. Thus, the registry should have sufficient information on each individual to avoid multiple registrations of the same subject. The most universal and generally used identifier is the name. The utility of using names will vary depending on local cus- tom. For instance, surname (or family name) may not be used—persons may be known only by their first name. Individuals may change their name when they get married or for other social reasons.

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  • In addition to incidence figures, population-based cancer registries that conduct adequate follow-up of their patients are able to estimate the preva- lence of cancer. Prevalence figures give an indication of the burden of the dis- ease in the community. Cancer registries generally assume that once diag- nosed with cancer, an individual remains a prevalent case until death. Thus, prevalence may be estimated from data on incidence and survival.

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  • Breast cancer cells exhibit excessive proteolysis, which is responsible for extensive extracellular matrix degradation, invasion and metastasis. Besides other proteases, lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B has been impli-cated in these processes and the impairment of its intracellular activity was suggested to reduce harmful proteolysis and hence diminish progression of breast tumors.

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  • This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge....

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